Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|14 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

14 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Danube Sturgeon
Science and Technology 
  • Tuberculosis (TB) 
Economy
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) 
Polity and Governance 
  • Chief Election Commissioner 
International Relations
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 

Environment

Danube Sturgeon

Why in News:

According to a report released by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), illegal sale of Danube Sturgeon is rampant in Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.

About Danube Sturgeon:

  • They have existed since the time of dinosaurs i.e., for about 200 million years. Some of the species are known to grow up to eight metres in length and live for more than a century.
  • These are called living fossils.
    • Living Fossilsare those organisms which have remained unchanged from earlier geologic times and whose close relatives are mostly extinct.
  • They usually take long time to recover from environmental and human pressures, according to WWF, hence making them great indicators for the health of the river

Habitat:

  • Live mostly in the Black Sea, migrating up the Danube river and some other major rivers to spawn.

Threats:

  • Over-exploitation and poaching
  • Blocked migration routes through dams.
  • Loss or degradation of habitats.

Protection Status:

  • IUCN Red list: 5 out of 6 species of Danube Sturgeon is listed as critically endangered.
  • CITES: Appendix-II.

Related Information:

  • Danube is the second longest river in Europe after the Volga.
  • It rises in the Black Forest mountains of Germany and flows into the Black Sea.

Science and Technology

Tuberculosis (TB)

Why in News?

Recently, the Union minister of Health has declared UT of Lakshadweep as Tb free.

About TB:

  • TB is abacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs.
  • TB is spread from person to person through the air via cough, sneeze, or spit, as these propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to first-line TB drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. It is treatable and curable by using second-line
  • Drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not even respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs. This is often untreatable.

Initiatives by India on this front

  • The Nikshay Portal: It is a national TB information system to manage information of patients, and treatment.
  • Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY): Aims to provide financial support to TB patients for their nutrition.
  • TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign: Launched in 2019 it showcases the highest level of commitment to eliminate TB.
  • The Saksham Project by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)- provides psycho-social counselling to DR-TB patients.

Economy

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

Why in News?

Recently, Yes bank has decided to appeal to Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT) against fine of ₹25 Crore imposed on them by SEBI.

About SEBI:

  • It is a statutory body established in 1992 under the provisions of the SEBI Act, 1992.
  • In April 1988, SEBI was stablished as a non-statutory body as the regulator of capital markets in India.
  • SEBI, due to its functions can be referred to as:
    • quasi-legislative-draft regulations,
    • quasi-judicial- conduct inquiries, pass rulings.
    • quasi-executive body- impose penalties.

About Securities Appellate Tribunal

  • SAT is a statutory body established under the SEBI Act, 1992.
  • Composition: A Presiding Officer and Two other members.
  • The Presiding officer of SAT is appointed by the GoI in consultation with the Chief Justice of India or his nominee.
  • It has same powers as vested in a civil court.
  • Appeals against SAT’s decisions can be filedin the Supreme Court.
  • SAT can hear and dispose appeals against orders passes by
    • SEBI or by an adjudicating officer under the SEBI Act,1992.
    • Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
    • Insurance Regulatory Development Authority of India (IRDAI).

Polity and Governance

Chief Election Commissioner

Why in News?

Recently, the President appointed Election Commissioner Sushil Chandra as the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) of India.

About the Election Commission of India

  • The ECI is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible to administer Union and State election processes in India.
  • The body administers elections to:
    • Lok Sabha,
    • Rajya Sabha,
    • State Legislative Assemblies in states of India,
    • Offices of the President and Vice President in the country.
  • Elections to panchayats and municipalities in the states are conducted by another constitutional body i.e., State Election Commission. Hence such elections are not responsibility of SEC.

Composition of ECI:

  • Initially, ECI had only one election commissioner but post the Election Commissioner Amendment Act 1989, it has been made a multi-member body.
  • The ECI consists of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and such number of other election commissioners, as the President may from time to time fix.
  • Presently, ECI consists of the CEC and two other Election Commissioners.
  • At the state level, Chief Electoral Officer assists ECI. (Not to be confused with State Election Commissioners who conduct panchayat and municipal elections)

Appointment & Tenure of Commissioners:

  • The President appoints the CEC and other Election Commissioners.
  • They have a fixed tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as given to theJudges of the Supreme Court (SC) of India.

Removal:

  • They can resign anytime by writing to the President of India or can also be removed before the expiry of their term.
  • As per Constitution, the CEC can only be removed from office only through a process of removal similar to that of a SC judge by the Parliament.

Procedure of Removal

  • He may be removed from office through a motion adopted by Parliament on grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
  • Removal requires a special majority of 2/3rd members present and voting with support by more than 50% of the total strength of the house.

NOTE:

  • The Constitution has not prescribed any qualifications for the members of the Election Commission.
  • It also has not specified the term of the members of the Election Commission.
  • The Constitution has also not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.

    International Relations

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    Why in News?

    The IAEA stated that it will work closely with Japan which is preparing to release tonnes radioactive wastewater from Fukushima nuclear powerinto the sea.

    About IAEA:

    • The IAEA is a UN agency working as the international centre for cooperation in the nuclear/atomic field.
    • It works with its member countries and many other partners to promote peaceful uses of nuclear technologies.
    • In 1957, it was set up as the world’s “Atoms for Peace” organization within the United Nations.
    • It reports to both the UN General Assembly and Security Council.
    • It has headquarters in Vienna, Austria.

    Key functions:

    • Promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies in the globe.
    • Promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy,
    • Inhibit nuclear energy’s use for any military purpose, also including nuclear weapons.

    The IAEA has three chief areas of work:

    • Safety and security
    • Science and technology
    • Safeguards and verification

    Other important aspects of IAEA:

    • India is a founding member of the IAEA, i.e., joined it in 1957.
    • Presently, IAEA functions as an autonomous organisation within the United Nations system.
    • Funding of IAEA: Contributions and donations from non-members.

    Note: IAEA is not specialised agency of UN.

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