Why in News?
Pakistan’s National Assembly has recently passed the ICJ (Review and Re-consideration) Bill, 2020 to provide the right of appeal to prisoner Kulbhushan Jadhav.The Bill is aimed to allow Jadhav to have consular access following the judgement by ICJ.
- Established in 1945 by the United Nations charter.
- It is the principal judicial organ of the UN, situated in The Hague, Netherlands.
- It settles legal disputes between States and also gives advisory opinions in accordance with international law, on the legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies.
- The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council.
- Election requires that the candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies.
- One third of the Court is elected every three years and Judges are also eligible for re-election.
- ICJ’s official languages are English and French.
Jurisdiction and Functioning:
- ICJ acts as a world court with following jurisdiction:
- Legal disputes between States submitted to it by them (contentious cases),
- Requests for advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by UN organs and specialized agencies (advisory proceedings).
- Who all can be party to contentious cases:
- Only those States which are members of the UN and have become parties to the Statute of the Court.
- UN states which have accepted ICJ’s jurisdiction under certain conditions, are parties to contentious cases.
- The judgment is final and binding on the parties to the case and without appeal (at the most the judgement may be subject to reinterpretation or, upon the discovery of a new fact, revision).