Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|14 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

14 June 2021-Monday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology

  • Venus Planet 

Polity and Governance 

  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) 

History 

  • Ram Prasad Bismil 

International Relations 

  • International Court of Justice (ICJ)

News in Short 

  • AISHE-2020 

Science and Technology

Venus Planet

Why in News?

European Space Agency recently announced a new mission and thatEnVisionwill be its next orbiter which will visit Venus sometime in the 2030s.

About Planet Venus:

  • It is the second planet from the Sun in the solar system.
  • It is also the sixth planet size and mass.
  • It is the second brightest natural object in the night sky after moon.
  • Unlike the other planets in the solar system, only Venus and Uranus spin clockwise on their axis.
  • It is the hottest planet in the solar system particularly due to high concentration of carbon dioxide which produces an intense greenhouse effect.
  • Venus takes longer to rotate on its axis than to complete one orbit of the Sun, thus a day on Venus is longer than a year.
  • Venus is called Earth’s twin due to similarities in their masses, sizes, and densities and their similar relative locations in the solar system.
  • No planet approaches as close to Earth as Venus; at its nearest it is the closest large body to Earth other than the Moon.
  • Other Missions to Venus:Venus is known to have 90 times the atmospheric pressure of Earth.
    • US: Mariner series, Pioneer Venus 1 and 2, Magellan in 1989.
    • Russia: Venera series
    • Japan: Akatsuki in 2015.
    • Europe: Venus Express in 2005.
    • India plans to launch a new orbiter named Shukrayaan to Venus by 2024.

    Polity and Governance

    Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

    Why in News?

    Even after a year of the high profile Sushant Singh’s suicide case, CBI is yet to conclude its investigations.

    About CBI:

    • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating police agency in India and functions under the administrative superintendence of the of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances.
    • This ministry is directly under PMO.
    • For investigations of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, its superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.
    • It is the nodal police agency in India to coordinate the investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
    • It is a non-statutory body deriving its power from Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, 1946.
    • Types of Cases Handled by the CBI:
      • Anti-Corruption Crimes – Under the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA)
      • Economic Crimes – for investigation of major financial scams and serious economic frauds.
      • Special Crimes – for investigation of serious and organized crime under the Indian Penal Code and other laws on the requests of State Governments or on the orders of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
      • Suo Moto Casesonly in the Union Territories.

    Other Takeaways:

    • The GoI can authorize CBI to investigate a crime in anystate only with the consent of the concerned State Government.
    • The Supreme Court and High Courts can order CBI investigation in a crime anywhere in the countryeven without the consent of the State.
    • The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964).

    Director of CBI:

    • Till 2014, the Director of CBI was appointed on the basis of the DSPE Act, 1946.
    • The Lokpal Act, 2014 provided a committee for appointment of CBI Director:
      • Headed by Prime Minister
      • Leader of Opposition/ Leader of the single largest opposition party,
      • Chief Justice of India/ a Supreme Court Judge.
    • Director of CBI is provided security of two-year tenure, under the CVC Act, 2003.

    History

    Ram Prasad Bismil

    Why in News?

    Recently, the birth anniversary of freedom fighter Ram Prasad Bismil was organised in Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh.

    About Bismil:

    • Was born in 1897, in a village in UP’s Shahjahanpur district.
    • He joined the Arya Samaj founded by Dayananda Saraswati in 1875.
    • He often employed poetry as a weapon to fight against the imperialist forces.
    • The ideals of a revolution first took root in his mind when he heard about the death sentence awarded to Bhai Parmanand, a fellow an Indian nationalist and Arya Samaj missionary.
    • He believed that freedom cannot be achieved without violence, bloodshed, etc.
    • He was one of the founders of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) along with Sachindra Nath Sanyal and Jadugopal Mukherjee.
    • HRA’s constitution was drafted chiefly by Bismil.

     

    Major Cases he was involved in:

    • Mainpuri Conspiracy of 1918:Bismil was selling books not prescribed by the government.
    • He published a pamphlet titled ‘Deshwasiyoke Naam’ and along with his poem ‘Mainpuri ki Pratigya’distributed it.
    • To collect funds for the party, they often looted government coffers.
    • In 1925, Bismil and his companions Chandrasekhar Azad and Ashfaqulla Khan decided to loot a train in Kakori near Lucknow.
    • They were successful in their attempt but were arrested and tried under the Kakori Conspiracy Case.
    • Bismil, Lahiri, Khan and Thakur Roshan Singh were awarded death sentences.
    • While lodged in Gorakhpur Jail, Bismil went on a hunger strike demanding better treatment as a political prisoner.
    • In Lucknow Jail, he wrote his autobiography, and also the song “Mera rang de Basanti chola”.

    International Relations

    International Court of Justice (ICJ):

    Why in News?

    Pakistan’s National Assembly has recently passed the ICJ (Review and Re-consideration) Bill, 2020 to provide the right of appeal to prisoner Kulbhushan Jadhav.The Bill is aimed to allow Jadhav to have consular access following the judgement by ICJ.

    About ICJ:

    • Established in 1945 by the United Nations charter.
    • It is the principal judicial organ of the UN, situated in The Hague, Netherlands.
    • It settles legal disputes between States and also gives advisory opinions in accordance with international law, on the legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies.

    Structure:

    • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council.
    • Election requires that the candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies.
    • One third of the Court is elected every three years and Judges are also eligible for re-election.
    • ICJ’s official languages are English and French.

    Jurisdiction and Functioning:

    • ICJ acts as a world court with following jurisdiction:
      • Legal disputes between States submitted to it by them (contentious cases),
      • Requests for advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by UN organs and specialized agencies (advisory proceedings).
    • Who all can be party to contentious cases:
      • Only those States which are members of the UN and have become parties to the Statute of the Court.
      • UN states which have accepted ICJ’s jurisdiction under certain conditions, are parties to contentious cases.
    • The judgment is final and binding on the parties to the case and without appeal (at the most the judgement may be subject to reinterpretation or, upon the discovery of a new fact, revision).

    News in Short

    AISHE-2020

    • Recently, the Union Minister of Education released All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) report 2019-20.
    • The Report provides key performance indicators on the current status of higher education in the country.
    • It contains data on:
      • Total Student Enrolment
      • Gross Enrolment Ratio
      • Female Enrolment
      • Teacher Pupil Ratio, etc.

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