Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|20 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

20 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 
  • Aditya-L1 Mission 
  • National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013 
Polity and Governance 
  • Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) 
  • Contempt of court 
Art and Culture 
  • Sri Ramanujacharya

Science and Technology

Aditya-L1 Mission

Why in News?

  • Aditya L1 programme to study sun and earth from space is due to be launched in next year.

About Aditya L1 Mission:

  • Launch Vehicle: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
  • Objective: To study the
    • Sun’s corona (Visible and Near infrared rays),
    • Sun’s photosphere (soft and hard X-ray),
    • Chromosphere (Ultra-Violet),
    • solar emissions,
    • solar winds and flares, and
    • Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs),
    • To carry out round-the-clock imaging of the Sun.
  • Challenges in the mission:
    • The distance of the Sun from Earth -approximately 15 crore kms
    • Aditya L1 will have some moving components which also increases the risks of collision.
    • Super-hot temperatures and radiation in the solar atmosphere.
    • Lagrange Points are positions in space where the gravitational forces of a two-body system (Sun and Earth in this case) produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion.About Lagrange Point 1
  • The L1 point is about 1.5 million km from Earth.
  • L1 refers to Lagrange Point 1, one of 5 points in the orbital plane of the Earth-Sun system.
  • These can be used by a spacecraft to reduce fuel consumption needed to remain static in a position.
  • Already, L1 point is home to the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Satellite (SOHO), a collaboration project of NASA and the European Space Agency.


    National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013

    Why in News?

    Odisha High Court has categorically stated that, ‘There must not be any person belonging to vulnerable categories who are left out of the NFSA.

    About NFSA:

    • It aims to provide food and nutritional security by ensuring access to adequate quantities of quality food at affordable prices to people.
    • Coverage:
      • 75% of the rural population
      • Upto 50% of the urban population
      • for receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).
    • Overall, NFSA caters to 67% of the total population of India.
    • Eligibility:
    • Priority Households to be covered under TPDS, according to State government’s guidelines.
    • Households that are covered under existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY).
    • It includes provisions for
      • existing AAY households,
      • pregnant women and lactating mothers
      • children upto 14 years of age, etc.

    Polity and Governance

    Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)

    Why in News?

    The Supreme Court recently dismissed a plea seeking 100 per cent matching of the VVPAT slips with the EVM’s vote count in the elections.

    About VVPAT:

    • VVPAT is a method of providing feedback to voters after they had polled using EVMs.
    • A VVPAT is designed to allow voters to verify that their vote was cast correctly.
    • It also provides a means to audit the stored electronic results.
    • It contains
      • Name of the candidate for whom vote has been cast
      • Symbol of the party/individual candidate.

    Contempt of court

    Why in News?

    The state govt. of UP will soon move to Supreme Court against the order by Allahabad High Court ordering them to put stringent lockdown in the state. The refusal to obey the orders would lead to contempt of court.

    About Contempt of Court:

    • The Contempt of Courts Act 1971 has defined the civil and criminal contempt.
    • It also lays down the powers and procedures with which courts can penalise contempt, and also the penalties that can be given for the offence of contempt.
    • Contempt of court is described to be of two kinds:
    • Civil Contempt: Willful disobedience of a court order/judgment or willful breach of an undertaking submitted to the court.
    • Criminal Contempt: It includes any written or spoken word or any act
      • that scandalises the court, or
      • lowers its authority or prejudices, or
      • interferes with the due course of a judicial proceedings, or
      • interferes in the administration of justice.

    Related provisions:

    • Article 129 and 215 empowers the Supreme Court and High Court respectively to punish people for their respective contempt.
    • The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971defines the power of the High Court to punish contempts of its subordinate courts.
    • Contempt of Court is also included as a reasonable restriction to the freedom of speech and expression under Article 19.

    Role of Attorney general (AG) in contempt cases:

    Consent of AG:

    • The AG’s consent is mandatory if a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against any other person.
    • However, if the court itself initiates a contempt case the AG’s consent is not mandatory. It is so because the court is exercising its inherent powers under the Article 129/215 to punish for contempt.

    If AG denies Consent:

    • If the AG denies consent, the matter ends.
    • The complainant can still separately bring the issue to the notice of court urging the court to take suo motu

    NOTE: The reason behind requiring the consent of the AG before taking cognizance of any complaint is to save the time of the court.

    Art and Culture

    Sri Ramanujacharya:

    Why in News?

    Recently, the birth anniversary of Sri Ramanujacharya was observed on April 18, 2021.
    About Ramanujacharya:
    • He was born in 1017 CE in present Tamil Nadu state.
    • He is one of the most respected Acharya in philosophy of Vaishnavism.
    • He was also revered as Ilaya Perumal meaning the radiant one.
    • His philosophical teachings served as foundational stones for later popular Bhakti movement.
    • He is famous for pro pounding Vishishtadvaita subschool of Vedānta system of philosophy.
    • His scholarly works:
      • Brahma Sutras,
      • Bhagavad Gita, etc (all in Sanskrit).

    About Vishishtadvaita:

    • It is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta philosophy.
    • Their main message wasthe non-dualism of the qualified whole, whereby Brahman alone exists, but is characterized by multiplicity.
    • It is also described as ‘qualified monism’ or ‘qualified non-dualism’.
    • This school believes in diversity subsuming an underlying unity.

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