Why in News?
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is preparing draft regulations for NHM announced by Finance Minister during budget 2020-21.
- Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel burned when with pure oxygen.
- Uses of Hydrogen fuel
- Fuel cells: Generate electricity.
- Internal combustion engines like in vehicles.
- Spacecraft propulsion
Properties of Hydrogen:
- Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. It is also the lightest element.
- Hydrogen is less dense than air, hence it rises in the atmosphere, because of which it is rarely found in its pure form, H2.
- At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a nontoxic, non-metallic, odourless, colourless, and highly combustible gas.
- It is the most abundant element in the universe.
- Molecular hydrogen is not available on Earth in convenient natural reservoirs.
Most hydrogen on Earth is bonded to oxygen in water and to carbon in live or dead and/or fossilized biomass.
- Water is the most abundant compound of hydrogen found on earth.
- Storage of hydrogen as a liquid requires cryogenic temperatures because the boiling point of hydrogen at one atmosphere pressure is −252.8°C.
- Storage of hydrogen as a gas typically requires high-pressure tanks.
- Hydrogen can also be stored on the surfaces of solids (by adsorption) or within solids (by absorption).
Benefits of hydrogen as a fuel:
- No harmful emissions.
- Non-toxic substance.
- Hydrogen is three times as powerful as gasoline and other fossil fuels. It means that it can accomplish more with less.
- It is fuel efficient. Compared to diesel or gas, it is much more fuel efficient as it can produce more energy per pound of fuel.
- It is renewable. It can be produced again and again, unlike other non-renewable sources of energy.
- Abundantly available.
Limitations in usage of Hydrogen Fuel:
- Hydrogen does not occur in deposits or reserves abundantly like fossil fuel.
- Hydrogen is far more expensive to produce using renewables.
- Hydrogen-fuelled vehicles aremore expensive.
- It is highly flammable, thus difficult to store.