Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|21 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

21 April 2021

Table Of Contents

  • National Climate Vulnerability Assessment Report 
  • Sulphur Dioxide Emissions
Polity and Governance
  • Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) 
Art and Culture
  • Madhubani Painting 
Places in News
  • Ukraine 
  • Cuba


National Climate Vulnerability Assessment Report

Why in News?

The Department of Science and Technology has recently released a report titled ‘Climate Vulnerability Assessment for Adaptation Planning in India Using a Common Framework’.

About the Report:

  • The report identifies the most vulnerable states and districts in India with respect to current climate risk.
  • It aims to prioritize adaptation investment, developing and implementing adaptation programs.
  • Some key indicators for the assessment:
    • percentage of BPL population
    • income share from natural resources,
    • the proportion of marginal and small landholdings,
    • women’s participation in the workforce,
    • density of healthcare workers etc.
  • It is also a part of the capacity building programme under the National Action Plan on Climate Change.

Key Findings mentioned in the Report:

  • Highly Vulnerable States: Jharkhand, Mizoram, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal as states highly vulnerable to climate change.

Sulphur Dioxide Emissions:

The Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) emissions from a volcanic eruption in the Caribbean islands (La Soufriere Volcano) have reached India, which may lead increased pollution levels in the northern parts of the country including acid rain.

About La Soufriere Volcano:

  • It is an active stratovolcano on the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent.
    • A stratovolcano is a tall and conical volcano composed of one layer of hardened lava, tephra, and volcanic ash.
    • Impact of the SO2emissions:These are characterized by a steep profile and periodic eruptions.
    • If the Volcanic emissions reach stratosphere, it can have a cooling effect on global temperatures.
    • It is because ofconversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid, which furthercondenses rapidly in the stratosphere to form fine sulphate aerosols.
    • These aerosols increase the reflection of radiation from the Sun back into space, thereby cooling the Earth’s troposphere.

    Polluting Impact of Sulphur Dioxide:

    • High concentrations of SO2 in the air leads to formation of other sulphur oxides (SOx). SOwhich can react with other compounds in the atmosphere forming small particles. These particles contribute to what is known as Particulate Matter (PM) pollution.
    • They penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause many health problems.
    • Acid rain is caused when sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are emitted into atmosphere and transported by wind and air currents.
      • They react with water, oxygen and other present chemicals to form sulfuric and nitric acids andfall on the ground.

    Polity and Governance

    Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)

    Why in News?

    There is acute shortage of staff (almost 27 out of 64 posts are lying vacant) in CAT leading to delay in disposal of cases.

    About CAT:

    • It is a statutory body established under Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985.
    • It derives powers from Article 323A of constitution. The tribunals under Article 323A can be formed only through the Parliament and notby the State Legislatures.
    • CAT is mandated to adjudicate matters related to the recruitment and conditions of service of personnel engaged in public service in India.

    CAT Jurisdiction:

    Original jurisdiction over all service matters concerned with:

    • Members of the all-India services.
    • Persons appointed to any civil service of the Union or civil post under the Union.
    • Civilians appointed to any defence services or posts related to defence.
    • Employees of PSUs or public sector organizations were notified by the government.

    NOTE: Members of the defence forces, officers, Supreme Court staff, the Parliament’s secretarial staff are not covered under the CAT.

    Key Points:

    • The Tribunal is provided with the power to exercise the same jurisdiction and authority regarding contempt of itself as a High Court.
    • Appeals against the orders of CATcan be made in the High Court (and not the SC directly).
    • The CAT Principal Bench deals with matters of the Government of the NCT of Delhi.
    • In deciding cases, the Tribunal is guided by the principles of natural justice. It is not bound by the Civil Procedure Code.
    • The GoI decides the salaries, emoluments, and conditions of service of the Tribunal’s employees.

    Art and Culture

    Madhubani Painting

    Why in News?

    A new platform Yeebo is digitally connectingcraftsmen of many indigenous crafts including Madhubahi paintings with potential buyers.

    About Madhubani Paintings:

    • Associated with Mithila region of Bihar.
    • The painting is one of the oldest and most famous Indian art forms.
    • It is also practised in Nepal.

    Key Characteristics:

    • Use tribal motifs made bright earthy colours.
    • Traditionally the womenfolk drew these paintings on the walls of their dwelling, to demonstrate of their feelings, hopes, and ideas.
    • However, today men are also involved to in this painting.
    • Style used include geometrical patterns, floral, animal and bird motifs.
    • Colours used in paintings comprise natural extracts from plants and other sources. For example,
      • Black colour is obtained by mixing soot with cow dung;
      • white from rice powder;
      • blue from indigo;
      • orange from palasha flowers, etc.
    • The colours are applied flat on the surface with no shading and no empty space is left.
    • Traditionally, the tools used for painting includes twigs, matchsticks, and fingers.
    • But now artists also use brushes, nib-pens and synthetic colours to paint.

    Themes of Painting

    • Mythological characters depicting the life of deities like Krishna, Shiva, Rama, Lakshmi, Durga, and Saraswati.
    • Tulsi plant, court scenes, wedding scenes, social happenings are also widely drawn.
    • Heavenly bodies like the Sun and the Moon are often painted.

    Places in News


    Why in News?

    Recently, Russia has defended itself on the account of Russia’s massive troop build-up at Ukraine border.

    About Ukraine:

    • Location: Eastern Europe
    • Surrounding Countries: Ukraine is bordered by Belarus, Russia, Moldova Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and Poland.
    • Surrounding Seas: Sea of Azov, Black Sea.


    • It is located in the northern Caribbean region where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet.
    • Cuba is one of a few remaining Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution.
    • The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, referred as the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

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