Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|22 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

22 June 2021-Tuesday

Table Of Contents


  • Black Softshell Turtle

Science and Technology 

  • Ebola Virus Disease 
  • Sickle Cell Disease 

Polity and Governance

  • Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)

News in Short 

  • Summer solstice 


Black Softshell Turtle

Why in News?

Recently, the forest department of Assam has signed a MoU with two NGOs and adopted a Vision Document to raise 1,000 black softshell turtles by 2030.

About Black Softshell Turtle:

  • They look similar to the Indian peacock softshell turtle, classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List.


  • It is afreshwater
  • There are 29 species of freshwater turtles and tortoises found in India.
  • Found in ponds of temples in North-Eastern India and regions of Bangladesh.
  • Its distribution range includes the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries.

Protection Status:

  • IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered
  • CITES: Appendix I
  • WPA, 1972: No legal protection


  • Consumption of turtle meat and eggs,
  • Silt mining,
  • Encroachment of wetlands,
  • Change in flooding pattern.

    Science and Technology

    Ebola Virus Disease

    Why in News?

    An Ebola outbreak reported in Guinea since February, was declared over by WHO.

    About Ebola Virus Disease (EVD):

    • EVD was formerly referred as theEbola haemorrhagic fever.
    • It is a severe and often fatal illness in humans.
    • The average EVD fatality rate ranges at around 50%.

    Mode of Transmission:

    • Animal to human transmission: It is introduced in the human population
    • Human-to-human transmission: It spreads via direct contact with blood or body fluids of an infected person, or any object contaminated by them.
    • Prevention Methods:
      • Community engagement to inculcate appropriate behaviour.
      • Case to case management, surveillance and contact tracing
    • Treatment Methods:
      • Early support with rehydration,
      • Symptomatic treatment does improve survival rate.
      • As of today there is no licensed treatment proven to neutralise the virus but many blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Why in News?

    World Sickle Cell Disease Day was observed on June 19.

    About Sickle Cell Disease:

    • It is an inheritedblood disease, most common among people of African, Arabian and Indian
    • It is a group of disorders which affects haemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells responsible todeliver oxygen to cells in the body.
    • Infected people’s red blood cells are moulded into a sickle, or crescent
    • This inhibits blood flow and oxygen from reaching throughout the body.


    • Severe pain, referred to as sickle cell crises.
    • Over time, damage to organs including the liver, kidney, lungs, heart and spleen.
    • Can also result in death from complications of the disorder.


    • Medication, blood transfusions and rarely a bone-marrow transplant.

    SCD in India:

    • India alone is home to about 1,50,000 patients with SCD i.e., about 88% of Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) cases in Asia are in India.
    • The disease in India occurs mostly in eastern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, western Odisha and in regions of Nilgiri Hills in north Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
    • The disease is widely prevalent among tribal communities (including children).

      Polity and Governance

      Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)

      Why in News?

      CII Presedient has recommended that GoImust relax the FCRA norms which are holding up global aid flows and ground level relief efforts of well-meaning NGOs to be better prepared for COVID-19 next waves.

      About FCRA, 2010

      • Foreign funding of persons and organisations in India is regulated under the FCRA Act.
      • It is implemented by Ministry of Home Affairs.
      • As per the act, individuals can accept foreign contributions without permission from MHA, subject to maximum limit of ₹ 25,000.
      • The Act also seek to ensure that the recipients of such foreign contributions adhere to the stated purpose for which the said contribution was obtained.
      • Organisations are required to (re)register themselves every five years.

      Key Provisions of Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2020

      • Prohibition to accept foreign contribution: It bars public servants from receiving foreign contributions.
        • Public servant includes a person in service or pay of the government or remunerated by the government for the performance of any public duty.
      • Transfer of foreign contributions: It prohibits the transfer of foreign contribution to any other person who is not registered to accept foreign contributions.
      • Aadhaar for registration: It makes Aadhaar mandatory for all key functionaries of organisation or individual receiving foreign contribution, as an identification document.
      • FCRA account: Foreign contribution must be received only in an account asdesignated by the bank as FCRA account in State Bank of India, New Delhi branch.
      • Reduction in use of foreign contribution for administrative purposes: It proposes that not more than 20% of the total foreign funds received could be used for administrative expenses.
      • Surrender of certificate: The Act allows the GoI to permit a person to surrender their registration certificate.

      News in Short

      Summer solstice

      • June 21 is referred to as the summer solstice i.e., the longest day of the summer season.
      • It is said to occur when sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer.
      • Solstice is caused due toEarth’s tilt on its axis and its motion in orbit around the sun.
      • At the June solstice, Earth is positioned in its orbit so that Earth’s North Pole is leaning most towards the sun.
      • All locations north of the equator have days longer than 12 hours at the June 21 (Summer) solstice. Also, all locations south of the equator have days shorter than 12 hours.
      • According to NASA, the amount of incoming energy the Earth receives on the solstice from the sun is 30 per cent higher at the North Pole than at the Equator.

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