DAILY PRELIMS NEWSLETTER (UPSC) |23 Feb 2021| RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

23 FEB 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment………………………………………………………………………1

  • Making Peace with Nature Report………………………..1
  • Declining Rainfall Trend in Cherrapunji ……………….1

Security ……………………………………………………………………………..2

  • Helina & Dhruvastra………………………………………………..2

International Relations………………………………………………………2

  • BRICS ……………………………………………………………………….2

News in Short…………………………………………………………………….3

  • Visva-Bharati University………………………………………..3
  • International Mother Language Day…………………….3

Environment

Making Peace with Nature Report

Why in News?

The ‘Making Peace with Nature’ report was released recently by UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), ahead of the fifth session of the UN Environment Assembly.

  • The report mentions how planetary emergencies like climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution are closely interconnected and are resulting in widening inequalities, varied performance of SDGs etc.

About UNEP:

  • The UNEP is a global environmental authority established on 5th June 1972 after UN Conference on Human Environment.
  • Key Functions:
    • Sets the global environmental agenda,
    • promotes the sustainable development within the United Nations system,
    • serves as an advocate for global environment protection.
  • Other Reports published by UNEP:
    • Emission Gap Report,
    • Adaptation Gap Report,
    • Global Environment Outlook,
    • Invest in a Healthy Planet.
  • It is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

About United Nations Environment Assembly

  • UNEA is the governing body of the UNEP.
  • It is the world’s highestlevel decision-making body on the environment.
  • It meets bienniallye., once every two years
  • It was created after Rio+20 in June 2012, during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development.

Declining Rainfall Trend in Cherrapunji

Why in News? 

A recent study has found a decreasing trend in rainfall at Cherrapunji (Meghalaya) and nearby areas over the course of last 119 years.

Possible Reasons for this decline:

  • Rise in the Indian Ocean temperature has altered the rainfall pattern in this region.
  • Reduction in the vegetation area and deforestation.
  • Increase in croplands, urban and built-up lands.

Reason for High Rainfall in Cherrapunji:

  • Orographic Rainfall: The northward moving moist winds from the Bay of Bengal branch of Indian Monsoon passing over the plains of Bangladesh are forced to converge in the narrow valleys of the Khasi Hills.
  • The orography in Khasi Hills provides forced ascent that causes condensation, formation of clouds, that results in rain on the windward side of the slope.

Related Information:

  • Presently, Mawsynram in East Khasi Hills, Meghalaya is now the wettest place in the world.
  • It receives over 10,000 millimetres of rain in a year.
  • Both Cherrapunji and Mawsynram are located on the southern slopes of the east Khasi Hills in Meghalaya.

Security

Helina & Dhruvastra

Why in News?

Trials for the Helina and Dhruvastra have been carried out  successfully from Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) in Pokhran range, Thar desert.

Related Information:

  • Helina (the Army version)and Dhruvastra(Indian Airforce version)are the helicopter launched version of the Nag anti-tank guided missile system.
  • Helina is the third-generation, Lock on Before Launch; Fire and Forget class anti-tank guided missile system.
  • It has all- weather, including day and night operational capabilities.
  • It can engage targets in
    • Direct hit mode-The missile traverses at low altitude, directly striking the target.
    • Top attack mode-The missile climbs sharply after launch; traverse at a certain altitude, then plunge on top of the target.
  • These have been designed and developed indigenously by the DRDO.

International Relations

BRICS

Why in News?

BRICS Summit 2021 is expected to happen physically in India.

About BRICS:

  • BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, i.e., Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • The British Economist Jim O’Neill coined the term BRIC in 2001 to describe the four emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
  • The grouping was formalised in 2006.
  • South Africa joined BRIC in 2010, after which the group adopted the changed acronym BRICS.
  • The chairmanship of BRICS is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.
  • The BRICS Leaders’ Summit is convened annually.

About New Development Bank

  • During the Sixth BRICS Summit in 2014the leaders agreed to establish the New Development Bank (NDB) by Fortaleza Declaration.
  • The aim of the bank is to mobilize funds for infrastructure and sustainable development in the countries.
  • The ownership structure of NDB is unique, as each of the BRICS countries have an equal share and no country has any veto power.
  • NDB is headquartered in Shanghai, China.

News in Short

Visva-Bharati University

  • It was set up by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in 1921 at Shantiniketan, Bolpur in West Bengal.
  • The institute is popular forconducting open-air education.
  • It is based on belief of Tagore that walls represent the closed conditioning of the mind.
  • Tagore disliked the Western method of education introduced by the British in India.
  • On this subject, Opinion of Tagore and Gandhiji matched.
  • The institute allows students to continue their course till the student and his teacher both are satisfied.
  • The curriculum has music, painting, dramatic performances and other performative practices.

International Mother Language Day

  • It is observed on Feb 21, every year since 2000 to promote linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism.
  • It was approved by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1999.
  • The idea to celebrate IMLD was mooted by Bangladesh.
  • This year’s theme: Fostering multilingualism for inclusion in education and society.
  • The Ministry of Education along with educational institutions and language institutions is celebrated the day as the Matribhasha Diwas in the country.

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