DAILY PRELIMS NEWSLETTER (UPSC) |25 Feb 2021| RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

25 FEB 2021

Table Of Contents

Economy……………………………………………………………………………….1

  • Anti-Dumping Duty ………………………………………………….1

Polity and Governance………………………………………………………..1

  • President’s Rule ………………………………………………………..1

Society………………………………………………………………………………….2

  • Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) ………2

Governmental Initiatives……………………………………………………..3

  • PM KISAN: ………………………………………………………………….3

International Relations………………………………………………………..3

  • UN Human Rights Council:……………………………………….3

News in Short……………………………………………………………………….4

  • Laxmi Vilas Palace ……………………………………………………..4

Economy

Anti-Dumping Duty

Why in News?

Recently, the Directorate General of Trade Remedies (DGTR) has started a probe to review the need for continuing anti-dumping duty on certain types of steel products imported from China.

About Anti Dumping Duty:

  • In international trade practices, dumping is said to occur when a country or a firm exports an item at a price lower than the price of that product in its domestic market.
  • Dumping impacts the price of that product in the importing country, negatively hitting margins and profits of local manufacturers.
  • Thus, Anti-dumping duty is imposed to rectify this situation arising out of the dumping of goods and its trade distortive effect on local economy.

NOTE: Although it is a protectionist tariff, use of anti-dumping measures as an instrument of fair competition is permitted by the WTO.

About Directorate General of Trade Remedies

  • It is the apex national authority under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • It administers all trade remedial measures likeanti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguard measures.
  • It also provides trade defence support to the domestic industries and exporters in dealing with instances of trade remedy investigations instituted against them by other countries.

Related Information:

  • Countervailing Duties (CVDs) are tariffs levied on imported goods in order to offset subsidies made to producers and exporters of these goods in the exporting country.
  • CVDs aim to level the playing field between domestic and foreign producers of the product.

Polity and Governance

President’s Rule

Why in News?

The Union Cabinet recently approved dissolution of the Puducherry Assembly and impose President’s Rule in the Union Territory.

About President’s Rule:

  • The President’s Rule is imposed through the invocation of Article 356 by the President on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers (CoM).
  • Under Article 356, the President of India is empowered to suspend state government and impose President’s rule in any state if
    • “he is satisfied that such a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution”.
  • It is also referred to as ‘State Emergency’ or ‘Constitutional Emergency’.

Implications after imposition:

  • Upon the imposition of this rule, the Council of Ministers will be immediately dissolved.
  • The President can either suspend or dissolve the state legislative assembly.
  • The state will fall under the direct control of the Union executive, and the Governor will continue to be the head of the proceedings, representing the President of India.

Parliamentary Approval and Duration:

  • A proclamation imposing President’s Rule must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) within two months from the date of its issue.
  • The approval takes place through simple majority in both the House, that is, a majority of the members of the House present and voting.
  • Such a proclamation is initially valid for six months and can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament, every six months.

Role of Report of the Governor:

  • Under Article 356, President’s Rule is imposed if the “President, upon receipt of the report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution”.

Revocation:

  • The President’s Rule may be revoked by the President at any time by a subsequent proclamation.
  • Such a proclamation does not require parliamentary approval.

Society

Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA)

Why in News?

Lengthy and cumbersome adoption procedures of CARA and the increasing number of childless couples have given rise to grey market for adoption, an NGO told the Delhi High Court recently.

About CARA:

  • CARA is a statutory body under Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • Key Functions:
    • As the nodal body for adoption of Indian children.
    • Monitors and regulates in-country and inter-country adoptions.
  • CARA is designated as the Central Authority to deal with inter-country adoptions in accordance with the provisions of the Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption, 1993.
  • CARA deals with adoption of orphan, abandoned and surrendered children through its associated and  recognised adoption agencies.
  • CARA is also empowered to frame regulations on adoption-related matters under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015.

About Hague Convention:

  • The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction protects children and their families against the risks of illegal, irregular or premature adoptions abroad.
  • It is a multilateral treaty which came into existence on 1st December 1983.
  • The Convention applies to children under 16 years.It was ratified by the Government of India in 2003.
  • It also ensures the prompt return of the child who has been abducted from the country of their habitual residence.

Society

Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA)

Why in News?

Lengthy and cumbersome adoption procedures of CARA and the increasing number of childless couples have given rise to grey market for adoption, an NGO told the Delhi High Court recently.

About CARA:

  • CARA is a statutory body under Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • Key Functions:
    • As the nodal body for adoption of Indian children.
    • Monitors and regulates in-country and inter-country adoptions.
  • CARA is designated as the Central Authority to deal with inter-country adoptions in accordance with the provisions of the Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption, 1993.
  • CARA deals with adoption of orphan, abandoned and surrendered children through its associated and  recognised adoption agencies.
  • CARA is also empowered to frame regulations on adoption-related matters under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015.

About Hague Convention:

  • The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction protects children and their families against the risks of illegal, irregular or premature adoptions abroad.
  • It is a multilateral treaty which came into existence on 1st December 1983.
  • The Convention applies to children under 16 years.It was ratified by the Government of India in 2003.
  • It also ensures the prompt return of the child who has been abducted from the country of their habitual residence.

Governmental Initiatives

PM KISAN:

Why in News?

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi scheme completed two years of implementation.

About PM Kisan:

  • PM-KISAN is a Central Sector Scheme., has 100% funding from the Government of India.
  • Under Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer’s Welfare.
  • Under this scheme, the Centre transfers an amount of Rs 6,000 per year, in three equal instalments directly into the bank accounts (DBT) of beneficiaries.
  • Beneficiary: All the landholding farmers irrespective of the size of their land holdings (there are some exceptions to eligibility as well).
  • It intends to supplement farmers’ income and help in procuring various inputs to ensure proper crop health and appropriate yields.
  • The identification of beneficiary farmer families is done by the State / UT Governments.
  • Similar Income support schemes are also announced by several states like
    • Telangana’s Rythu Bandhu scheme,
    • Odisha’s Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income Augmentation (KALIA) scheme

International Relations

UN Human Rights Council:

Why in News?

In a press release, The U.S.A. announced to seek re-election to the UNHRC, and “humbly” asked for the support of UN member states.

About UNHRC:

  • The UNHRC is a United Nations body with mission of promoting and protecting human rights around the world.
  • It was reconstituted from its predecessor organisation, the UN Commission on Human Rights.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The UNHRC passes non-binding resolutions on human rights issues through a periodic review of all 193 UN member states called Universal Periodic Review (UPR).
  • It also oversees expert investigation of violations of human rights in specific countries.

Composition of UNHRC:

  • It has 47 members elected for three-year terms on a regional group basis from 5 groups.
  • To become a member, a country must receive absolute majority, i.e. the votes of at least 97 of the 193 states of the UN General Assembly.
  • Member Countries are allowed only two consecutive terms.

News in Short

Laxmi Vilas Palace

  • Located in Vadodara, Gujarat.
  • Built by Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III in 1890.
  • Gaekwadswerea prominent Maratha family, who ruled the Baroda State.
  • Architect: Major Charles Mant

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