Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|26 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

26 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology
  • Malaria Disease
  • Ways and Means Advances (WMA) 
Polity and Governance 
  • National Panchayati Raj Day
Governmental Initiatives 
  • SWAMITVA scheme
International Relations 
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 

Science and Technology

Malaria Disease

Why in News?

World Malaria Day was recently observed on April 25, 2021.

About Malaria:

  • It is a life-threatening mosquito borne blood disease.
  • It is caused by plasmodium parasites.
  • Its occurrence is mostly in the tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, South America and Asia.
  • The parasites spread with the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
  • After entering the human body, these parasites initially multiply and thrive within the liver cells. Later they attack the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) resulting in their rupture.
  • Symptoms of malaria:
    • fever,
    • Shaking chills,
    • headache,
    • muscle aches, and
  • It is both preventable and curable.
  • The malaria vaccine is known as


Ways and Means Advances (WMA)

Why in News?

RBI has decided to continue with the existing interim WMA scheme limit of ₹51,560 crore for all States/ UTs shall for the next six months i.e., up to September 30, given the prevalence of COVID-19.

About Ways and Means Advances:

  • WMA are temporary loan facilities provided by RBI to the government (both state and centre) to enable it to meet temporary mismatches between revenue and expenditure.
  • The borrower(government) makes an interest payment to the RBI when it borrows money.
  • The rate of interest for WMA is the same as the repo rate, but the tenure of loan is three months.
  • The limits of WMA are decidedmutually by the RBI and the Government of India.
  • The states are allowed an overdraft facilitye. to borrow in excess of WMA limitfor 21 days.

Related Information:

The WMA scheme was introduced by the GoIin 1997, after putting an end to the system of adhoc (temporary) Treasury Bills to finance the Central Government’s temporary deficit.

Polity and Governance

National Panchayati Raj Day

Why in News?

India, recently, commemorated the 12th National Panchayati Raj day on April 24, 2021.

About Panchayati Raj:

  • The Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI) was constitutionalized through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 to build the democracy at the grass roots level.
  • PRIsare a system of rural local self-government in India.

Key Features of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment:

  • It added Part IX, “The Panchayats” to the Constitution.
  • Basic unit of democratic system – the Gram Sabha comprises of all the adult members registered as voters.
  • Three-tier system of panchayats at village, intermediate block/taluk/mandal and district levels.
    • The states with population is below 20 lakhs is exempted from having three tiers.
  • Seats at all the levels of Panchayat are to be filled by direct elections.
  • Provision of Reservation of Seats:
    • Seats reserved for SCs and STs at all the three levels including the chairpersons’ post in proportion to their population.
    • One-third of the total number of seats are to be compulsorily reserved for women.
    • One-third offices of chairpersons at all levels are also to be reserved for women
  • Duration:
  • Uniform five-year term and the elections to constitute new bodies are to be completed before the expiry of this term.
  • In the event of dissolution, elections are to be compulsorily heldwithin six months.
  • Independent Election Commission are constituted in each State for superintendence, direction and control of the electoral rolls.
  • Source of Revenue for Panchayats:

State legislature may authorise the Panchayats with

  • Budgetary allocation from State’s Revenue.
  • Share of revenue of certain taxes.
  • Collection and retention of the revenue the Panchayat raises.
  • Establish a StateFinance Commission in each State to determine the principles on which adequate financial resources would be ensured for panchayats and municipalities.

Governmental Initiatives


Why in News?

On the occasion of Panchayati Raj Divas, SWAMITVA scheme has been extended to all the states.

About SWAMITVA Scheme:

  • It was launched on Panchayati Raj Diwas ie. April 24th, 2020.
  • It seeks to map residential land ownership in the rural areas with the use of modern technology like drones.
  • It is step towards digital property record maintenance in India.
  • Under Ministry of Panchayati Raj.
  • A Property card will be prepared by states using accurate measurements by drone-mapping for every property in the village.

Intended Benefits:

  • Easy access to bank finance using property as a collateral with Property Card.
  • Streamline tax collection at the village level. The tax collected can be used to build rural infrastructure and facilities.
  • Thwarting attempts at property grabbing, reduce land ownership disputes, etc.

International Relations

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Why in News?

The fate on upcoming SAARC summit in October, to be held in Pakistan, appears to be uncertain.

  • SAARC was established with the signing of the SAARC Charter in Dhaka on 8 December 1985.
  • Members: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan became member of SAARC in 2005.
  • Nine Observers to SAARC, are (i) Australia; (ii) China; (iii) the European Union; (iv) Iran; (v) Japan; (vi) the Republic of Korea; (vii) Mauritius; (viii) Myanmar; and (ix) the USA.

Specialized Bodies of SAARC:

  • SAARC Development Fund:It funds of project-based collaboration in social sectors like poverty alleviation, development, etc.
  • South Asian University (SAU): is an international university, situated in India. Degrees and Certificates awarded by the SAU are considered at par with the respective Degrees and Certificates awarded by the National Universities.
  • South Asian Regional Standards Organization (SARSO): Based in Dhaka, aims to achieve and enhance cooperation in the fields of standardization and conformity assessment aimed to facilitate intra-regional trade and to have access in the global market.
  • SAARC Arbitration Council: An Inter-governmental body based in Pakistan, mandated to provide a legal framework within the region for fair and efficient settlement of disputes.

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