DAILY PRELIMS NEWSLETTER(UPSC)|26 Mar 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

26 March 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Sundarbans
Polity and Governance 
  • Contempt of court
Places in News 
  • Iran
  • Suez Canal
News in Short 
  • Pakal Dul Hydro Electric Project: 
  • PRANIT e-tendering portal

Environment

Sundarbans

Why in News?

Amid political campaigns, the issue of bringing development to the Sunderban region is being raised frequently.

About Sunderban:

  • It is a vast contiguous mangrove forest ecosystem.
  • It lies in the coastal region of Bay of Bengal spread across India and Bangladesh on the delta of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers.
  • It is believed to have the world’s largest mangrove forests.
  • The Sunderban Delta is the only mangrove forest in the world that is inhabited by tigers.

Protected Areas:

  • The region was declared as Sundarban Tiger Reserve in 1973
  • Later in 1984,Sundarbans National Park, which constitutes the core region within the tiger reserve.
  • It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
  • Further, Sunderbans was designated as Biosphere Reserve under Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme by UNESCO in 2001.
  • In 2019, Sundarban Wetland was recognised as the ‘Wetland of International Importance’ under Ramsar Convention.

Fauna:

  • Critically endangered Northern river terrapin
  • Endangered Irrawaddy dolphin, Royal Bengal Tiger
  • Vulnerable fishing cat, etc.

Related Information: Mangroves

  • Mangroves are plants found in inter-tidal zones along coasts of tropical and subtropical
  • They are known to perform multiple ecological functions:
    • production of woody trees,
    • provision of habitat, food and spawning grounds for fin-fish and shellfish,
    • provision of habitat for birds and other valuable fauna,
    • protection of coastlines and
    • accretion of sediment to form new lands, etc.
  • According to India State of Forest Report, West Bengal has the highest percentage of area covered under Mangrove forests followed by Gujarat and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Polity and Governance

Contempt of court

Why in News?

Recently, the Attorney General of India denied consent to the initiation of contempt proceedings against Congress MP Rahul Gandhi.

About Contempt of Court:

  • The Contempt of Courts Act 1971 has defined the civil and criminal contempt.
  • It also lays down the powers and procedures with which courts can penalise contempt, and also the penalties that can be given for the offence of contempt.

Contempt of court is described to be of two kinds:

  • Civil Contempt: Willful disobedience of a court order/judgment or willful breach of an undertaking submitted to the court.
  • Criminal Contempt: It includes any written or spoken word or any act
    • that scandalises the court, or
    • lowers its authority or prejudices, or
    • interferes with the due course of a judicial proceedings, or
    • interferes in the administration of justice.

Related provisions:

  • Article 129 and 215 empowers the Supreme Court and High Court respectively to punish people for their respective contempt.
  • The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971defines the power of the High Court to punish contempts of its subordinate courts.
  • Contempt of Court is also included as a reasonable restriction to the freedom of speech and expression under Article 19.

Role of AG in contempt cases:

Consent of AG:

  • The AG’s consent is mandatoryif a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against any other person.
  • However, if the court itself initiates a contempt case the AG’s consent is not mandatory. It is so because the court is exercising its inherent powers under the Article 129/215 to punish for contempt.

If AG denies Consent:

  • If the AG denies consent, the matter ends.
  • The complainant can still separately bring the issue to the notice of court urging the court to take suo motu
NOTE: The reason behind requiring the consent of the AG before taking cognizance of any complaint is to save the time of the court.

Places in News

Iran

Why in News?

Recently, an Iranian missile hit India-bound Israeli ship in Arabian Sea.

Key points about Iran:

  • Iran is also called as Persia, is a country in West Asia.
  • Neighbouring Countries:
    • Armenia
    • Azerbaijan
    • Turkmenistan,
    • Afghanistan,
    • Pakistan,
    • Turkey and
  • Neighbouring Water Bodies:
    • to the north by the Caspian Sea
  • to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

Related information:

  • Farzad-B Gas Field: Located in Persian Gulf and has huge gas reserves.

    Chabahar Port:

    • Location: Gulf of Oman
    • With development of Chabahar Port, India is eyeing the access to International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) that has sea, rail and road routes between India, Russia, Iran, Europe, and Central Asia.
    • India is also trying to counter the Chinese presence in the Arabian Sea where China is helping Pakistan develop Gwadar port.
    • Key Locations: Zahedan- Iran, Zaranj – Afghanistan, Delaram- Afghanistan

    Suez Canal

    Why in News?

    A large Chinese cargo ship got stuck in the Suez Canal due to a mishap caused by bad weather.

    About Suez Canal:

    • It is an artificial sea-level waterway running across the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.
    • It connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
    • The canal also separates AfricanandAsian
    • It is the shortest maritime routeconnecting Europe and the lands lying around the India and other western Pacific countries.
    • It is also one of the world’s most heavily used shipping lanes, carrying over 12% of the world’s trade by volume.

    News in Short

    Pakal Dul Hydro Electric Project:

    • It is proposed hydroelectric project in Kishtwar district of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • It will be built onMarusudar river, a tributary of the Chenab.

    PRANIT e-tendering portal

    • Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID) has established an e-Tendering Portal-PRANIT.
    • It aims to reduce paperwork and make the tendering process more transparent.
    • POWERGRID is a central PSU under Ministry of Power.

    Started From 14 Mar 2021

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