Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|26 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

26 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Polity and Governance
  • Competition Commission of India (CCI) 
Governmental Initiatives
  • SWAMIH Fund 
International Relations 
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 

Polity and Governance

Election Commission of India (ECI)

Why in News?

Recently, a petition was filed in the Supreme Court seeking the constitution of an independent collegium to appoint members of the ECI.

About the Election Commission of India

  • The ECI is an autonomousconstitutional authority responsible to administer Union and State election processes in India.
  • The body administers elections to:
    • Lok Sabha,
    • Rajya Sabha,
    • State Legislative Assemblies in states of India,
    • Offices of the President and Vice President in the country.
  • Elections to panchayats and municipalities in the states are conducted by another constitutional body i.e., State Election Commission. Hence such elections are not responsibility of SEC.

Composition of ECI:

  • Initially,ECI had only one election commissioner but post the Election Commissioner Amendment Act 1989, it has been made a multi-member body.
  • The ECI consists of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and such number of other election commissioners, as the President may from time to time fix.
  • Presently, ECI consists of the CEC and two other Election Commissioners.
  • At the state level, Chief Electoral Officer assists ECI. (Not to be confused with State Election Commissioners who conduct panchayat and municipal elections)

Appointment& Tenure of Commissioners:

  • The President appoints the CEC and other Election Commissioners.
  • They have a fixed tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as given to theJudges of the Supreme Court (SC) of India.


  • They can resign anytime by writing to the President of India or can also be removed before the expiry of their term.
  • As per Constitution, the CEC can only be removed from office only through a process of removal similar to that of a SC judge by the Parliament.

Procedure of Removal

  • He may be removed from office through a motion adopted by Parliament on grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
  • Removal requires a special majority of 2/3rd members present and voting with support by more than 50% of the total strength of the house.


  • The Constitution has not prescribed any qualifications for the members of the Election Commission.
  • It also has not specified the term of the members of the Election Commission.

The Constitution has also not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.

Legislative Council

Why in News?

Recently, the West Bengal government has decided to set up a Legislative Council in the state.

About Legislative Council (LC):

  • Process of setting up LC:
    • Passing Resolution to this effectby the Legislative Assemblyby a special majority,
    • Then a nod from the Governor is required.
  • Presently Six States have a Legislative Council:Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka.

Article 169- Creation and Abolition of LC:

  • The Parliament can abolish a LC (where it already exists) or create it (where it does not exist) by passing a resolution by simple majority, (a majority of the members of each House present and voting) if the legislative assembly of the concerned state, by a special majority, passes a resolution to thiseffect
  • Special majority denotes:
    • A majority of the total membership of the assembly and
    • A majority of not less than two-third of the members of the assembly present and voting.
  • Composition of LC:
  • Under Art. 171 of the Constitution, the LC of any state shall not havemore thanone-third of the total strength of the State Legislative Assembly, and not less than 40 members.
  • Similar to the Rajya Sabha, the LC is a continuing chamber, hence, is a permanent body not subject to dissolution.
  • The tenure of a Member of the Legislative Council (MLC) is six years, with one-third of the members retiring every two years.

Comparative Study of LC and Rajya Sabha:

  • The legislative power of the Councils areverylimited and is thus considered a secondary house of state legislature. While Rajya Sabha has substantial powers to shape non-financial legislation, LC lackssuch powers.
  • State Assemblies can override suggestions/amendments made to legislation by the LC.
  • Unlike Rajya Sabha MPs, MLCs cannot vote in the Presidential and Vice Presidential elections.
  • The Vice President becomes the Rajya Sabha Chairperson while a member from the LC itself is chosen as the Council Chairperson.


Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA)

Why in News?

CARA was recently in news due to adoption of orphaned children owing to COVID related complications.

About CARA:

  • CARA is a statutory bodyunder Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • Key Functions:
    • As the nodal body for adoption of Indian children.
    • Monitors and regulates in-country and inter-country adoptions.
  • CARA is designated as the Central Authority to deal with inter-country adoptions in accordance with the provisions of the Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption, 1993.
  • CARA deals with adoption of orphan, abandoned and surrendered childrenthrough its associatedandrecognised adoption agencies.
  • CARA is also empowered to frame regulations on adoption-related matters under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015.

About Hague Convention:

  • The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction protects children and their families against the risks of illegal, irregular or premature adoptions abroad.
  • It is a multilateral treaty which came into existence on 1st December 1983.
  • It was ratified by the Government of India in 2003.
  • The Convention applies to children under 16 years.
  • It also ensures the prompt return of the child who has been abducted from the country of their habitual residence.

Places in News

Farzad-B Gas Field

Recently, Iran gave the Farzad-B Gas Field to Petropars, anIranian gas producer.This being seen as a setback for India’s energy ties with Iran as ONGC Videsh Ltd (OVL) had discovered the gas field in 2008 and was a part of the ongoing cooperation of the field.

About Farzad-B Gas Field:

  • Located in Persian Gulf (Iran).
  • The contract for exploration of the field was signed in 2002 by Indian consortium of companies comprising ONGC Videsh, Indian Oil Corporation and Oil India.
  • The commerciality of the field was declared in 2009 post gas discovery.
  • It is expected to have gas reserves of more than 19 trillion cubic feet.
  • Post discovery, the consortium has been trying to secure the contract for development of the field.
  • Around 75% of the deal was finalised by May 2018, when the US withdrew from the nuclear deal (JCPOA) and announced sanctions on Iran unilaterally.

    Related Information: Iran

    • Iran is also called as Persia, is a country in West Asia.
    • Neighbouring Countries:Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan,Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey and Iraq.
    • Neighbouring Water Bodies:
      • to the north by the Caspian Sea

    to the south by the Persian Gulf

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