Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|27 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

27 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 
  • Black Hole 
Art and Culture 
  • Mahavir Jayanti 
Governmental Initiatives
  • Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) 
International Relations 
  • OPEC+
  • Quadrilateral Dialogue (QUAD)
Places in News 
  • Chad 
  • Sri Lanka 

Science and Technology

Black Hole

Why in News?

Scientists have recently discovered the smallest-known black hole in the Milky Way galaxy and nicknamed it ‘the Unicorn.’

About Black Hole:

  • It ispoint in space where the matter is so compressed that it created a gravity field from which even light cannot escape.

Types of Black Hole:

  1. With mass abouta few solar masses upto tens of solar masses- These are thought to form when massive stars die.

  2. Supermassive black holes-Having mass of about hundred thousands to billions of times mass of the sun of the Solar system.

Art and Culture

Mahavir Jayanti

Why in News?

On 25th April 2021, Mahavir Jayanti was observed throughout the country. It is one of the most auspicious festivals in the Jain community.

About Lord Mahavira:

  • Mahavir Jayanti marks the birth of Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara.
  • He had succeeded the 23rd Tirthankara, Parshvanatha.
  • Mahavira was the son ofKing Siddhartha of Kundagrama and Queen Trishala, a Lichchhavi princess.
  • He was born in the year 540 BC in the Vajji kingdom, in the area of modern day Vaishali in Bihar.
  • He belonged to the Ikshvaku
  • He abandoned worldly life at the age of 30 and attained ‘kaivalya’ or omniscience at the age of 42.
  • He taught:
    • Ahimsa- non-violence,
    • Satya- truth,
    • Asteya- non-stealing,
    • Brahmacharya- chastity and
    • Aparigraha-nonattachment.
  • His teachings were referred asJain Agamas.
  • He and his followers used Prakrit language so that ordinary people could understand his teachings.
  • It is believed that the Mahavira passed away in 468 BC at a place called Pavapuri near modern Rajgir in Bihar.

Governmental Initiatives

Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS)

Recently, the Ministry of Electronics (MEITY) has announced #FOSS4GOV Innovation Challenge to accelerate adoption of Free and Open-Source Software in Government.

AboutFree and Open-Source Software (FOSS):

  • FOSS means that the source code of software is open for all and anyone is free to use, study or modify the code.
  • The term “free” here indicates that the software developed does not have constraints on copyrights.
  • It does not mean software is free of cost.
  • Thus, it allows people to contribute to the development and improvement of the software like a community.
  • Examples of FOSS: MySQL, Firefox, Linux, etc.

Related Information: Closed Source Software

  • It refers to the software which uses the proprietary and closely guarded code.
  • Only the original authors of the software have the authority to access, copy, and alter that code.
  • In this case one does not purchase the software, but pay only to use it.

International Relations


Why in News?

The OPEC+ is keeping a close eye on surge in COVID-19 cases in India, Brazil and Japan, since there is a fear that oil demand may reduce in the near term.

About OPEC

  • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created afterafter Baghdad Conference, 1960
  • Five founding countries: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
  • It is a permanent intergovernmental organizationto co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among member nations.
  • Headquarter: Vienna, Austria.
  • OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and shares the ideals of the organization.
  • Currently, OPEC has a total of 14 Member Countries.


  • The non-OPEC countries which export crude oil are includedinOPEC plus
  • Notable OPEC plus countries: Malaysia, Oman, Russia.


  • USA is not part of OPEC+.

Oman is not part of OPEC but part of OPEC+.

Quadrilateral Dialogue (QUAD)

Why in News?

A recent US official statement has stated that, “The agreement between US and QUAD partners to produce a billion coronavirus vaccine doses in India by the end of 2022 to supply other Asian countries is still on track.”

About Quad:

  • The QUAD Group is an informal strategic dialogue mechanism with four members:
    • India,
    • Japan,
    • Australia,
  • The shared objective is to ensure and sustain a free, open and prosperous Indo-Pacific region.
  • The idea for the QUAD Group is attributed to former Japanese PM Shinzo Abe who, formally, mooted it in 2007.
  • However, it was in 2017, that the first official talks under the QUAD took place, in Manila, the Philippines.

    Places in News


    Why in News?

    • Chad’s President IdrissDebyItnohas recently died.
    • It is a landlocked country in Africa.
    • Bordering Nations:
      • Libya to the north,
      • Sudan to the east,
      • Central African Republic to the south,
      • Cameroon to the south-west,
      • Nigeria to the southwest (at Lake Chad), and
      • Niger to the west.
    • Related Water Body: Lake Chad.
    • Capital City: N’Djamena.

    Sri Lanka

    Why in News?

    Recently, a new COVID-19 strain was found in Sri Lanka.

    About Sri Lanka

    • India is Sri Lanka’s largest trading partner.
    • India is separated from Sri Lanka, by the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar.

    Regional Organisations both are members of:

    • SAARC: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
    • SASEC (South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme): Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka
    • BIMSTEC: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Thailand.
    • The key ports in Sri Lanka are indicated below

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