Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|28 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

28 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Seaweeds
Science and Technology
  • About Liquid oxygen
Polity and Governance 
  • Disaster Management Act 
  • PM CARES
Security
  • Cybercrime volunteer programme
Places in News 
  • Israel 

Environment

Seaweeds

Why in News?

About Seaweeds:
Central Institute of Fisheries Technology has recently developed the edible seaweed film that can replace plastic in food packaging.

  • They are the primitive, marine non-flowering marine algae without root, stem and leaves, play a major role in marine ecosystems.
  • Large seaweeds form dense underwater forests known as kelp forests, which act as underwater nurseries for fish, snails and sea urchins.
  • Seaweeds are found mostly in the intertidal region, in shallow and deep waters of the sea and also in estuaries and backwaters.
  • The southern Gulf of Mannar’s rocky intertidal and lower intertidal regions have rich populations of several seaweed species.

Ecological Importance of Seaweeds:

  • Seaweeds absorb the excessnutrients and balance out the ecosystem, when waste from agriculture, industries, aquaculture and households cause nutrient imbalance leading to algal blooming in the ocean.
  • Seaweeds trap and remove excess amount of iron and other metals including heavy metals in the ocean water.
  • The seaweeds derive nutrition through photosynthesis of sunlight and nutrients present in seawater. They release oxygen through every part of their bodies.
  • They also supply organic nutrients to other marine life forms.
  • Ocean afforestation: Seaweed has a significant role in mitigating climate change. It can sequester much Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Hence, there is a proposal termed as ‘Ocean afforestation’ for farming seaweed to remove carbon.

Other uses:

  • They can be used as fertilizers.
  • When livestock is fed with seaweed, methane emission from cattle may be reduced substantially.
  • They can be buried in beach dunes to combat beach erosion.
  • It is used as an ingredient in preparing toothpaste, cosmetics and paints.

Science and Technology

About Liquid oxygen

Why in News?

Liquid Oxygen is in news recently due to oxygen deficiency in hospitals.

About Liquid Oxygen:

  • Liquid oxygen (liquid form of molecular oxygen) has a pale blue
  • It is strongly paramagnetic, i.e., it can be suspended between poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet.
  • It has cryogenic nature, i.e., can cause the materials it touches to be extremely brittle.
  • It is very powerful oxidizing agent: organic materials will burn up rapidly and energetically in presence of liquid oxygen.

Uses:

  • Widely used in industrial and medical purposes.
  • It is the most common cryogenic liquid oxidizer propellant for spacecrafts, usually in combination with liquid hydrogen, kerosene or methane.

Polity and Governance

Disaster Management Act

Why in News?

Recently, the GoI invoked the Disaster Management Act, and ordered States that all liquid oxygen, including the existing stock with private plants, should be made available to the government and will be used for medical purposes only.

About the Disaster Management Act, 2005:

  • The stated objective of the DM Act, 2005 is to manage disasters, preparation of mitigation strategies, capacity-building, etc.
  • The Act establishes National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), with the Prime Minister as its chairperson.
  • The Act proposes to the Central Government to constitute a National Executive Committee to assist the NDMA.
  • All State Governments are also mandated to establish respective State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA).

Powers given to the Centre under DM Act, 2005:

  • It provides extensive powers to the central government and NDMA.
  • The Central Government, irrespective of any law in force can issue directions to any authority anywhere in India to facilitate or further assist in the disaster management.

PM CARES

Why in News?

The PM CARES Fund has recently approved allocation of funds for setting up 551 medical oxygen generation plants at hospitals across the country.

About PM CARES:

  • The Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations (PM-CARES) Fund was set up to accept donations and to provide relief during the Covid-19 pandemic, and other similar emergencies.
  • It was set up as a public charitable trust registered on March 27, 2020.
  • The donations to fund can also avail 100% tax exemption.
  • The Prime Ministeris its ex-officio Chairman andex-officio Trustees include Defence Minister, Home Minister and Finance Minister.
  • The contributions to the PM – CARES Fund will alsoqualify as CSR Expenditure.

Related Information: Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF):

  • It was constituted in 1948 by PM Nehru, to assist displaced persons from Pakistan.
  • Presently,the fund is used to tackle natural calamities like floods, cyclones, and earthquakes.
  • The fund is entirely constituted of public contributions and does not receive any budgetary support.
  • It accepts voluntary contributions from Individuals,Trusts, Organizations, Companies, and Institutions etc.
  • Disbursements from the fund are made with the approval of the Prime Minister.

Polity and Governance

PM CARES

Why in News?

Recently, the GoI invoked the Disaster Management Act, and ordered States that all liquid oxygen, including the existing stock with private plants, should be made available to the government and will be used for medical purposes only.

About the Disaster Management Act, 2005:

  • The stated objective of the DM Act, 2005 is to manage disasters, preparation of mitigation strategies, capacity-building, etc.
  • The Act establishes National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), with the Prime Minister as its chairperson.
  • The Act proposes to the Central Government to constitute a National Executive Committee to assist the NDMA.
  • All State Governments are also mandated to establish respective State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA).

Powers given to the Centre under DM Act, 2005:

  • It provides extensive powers to the central government and NDMA.
  • The Central Government, irrespective of any law in force can issue directions to any authority anywhere in India to facilitate or further assist in the disaster management.

Security

Cybercrime volunteer programme:

Why in News?

The Union Home Ministry has stated that it does not maintain a centralised list of volunteers enrolled under the cybercrime volunteer programme since the police is a State subject under the Seventh Schedule.

About Cybercrime Volunteer Programme:

  • Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) has envisaged the Cyber Crime Volunteers Program to bring together passionate citizens with to serve the nation on a single platform.
  • They are expected to contribute to the fight against cybercrime in the country.
  • The respective State/ UT Government registers the volunteers and avail their services, as necessary.

Places in News

Israel

Why in News?

The Israeli military recently claimedthat it shot down a drone belonging to Lebanon’s Hezbollah militant group that entered Israeli airspace.

About Israel:

  • Neighbouring Countries: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt.
  • Neighbouring oceans: Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Related Information:

Key Defence technologies imported by India from Israel are:

  • BARAK missile: The surface-to-air missile is a low-range air defence interceptor. Indian version of BARAK is called BARAK-8.
  • Phalcon Sensors: This airborne warning and control system (AWACS), is hailed as Indian Airforce Force’s “eyes in the skies”.It performs surveillance and intelligence gathering beyond visual range to warn against the incoming missiles or aircrafts in the airspace.

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