Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|29 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

29 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Mekedatu Project
  • Blackbucks 
Polity and Governance 
  • MPLAD Scheme 
  • National Green Tribunal (NGT)
Places in News 
  • Cauvery (Kaveri) River 

Environment

Mekedatu Project

Why in News?

Recently, Govt. of Karnataka has decided to challenge the National Green Tribunal’s (NGT) decision to appoint a joint committeeto look into allegations of unauthorized construction activity taking place near Mekedatu Dam Project.

Mekedatu, is a deep gorge situated at the confluence of the rivers Cauvery and one of its tributary Arkavathi.

About Mekedatu Project:

  • It aims to store and supply water for drinking purposes to the Bengaluru city.
  • Around 400 megawatts of power is proposed to be generated through this project.
  • It is awaiting approval from the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, GoI.
  • Approval from MoEF&CC is crucial since 63% of the forest area of the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary will be submerged under the project.
  • A conflict emerged in 2018, when Tamil Nadu approached the Supreme Court (SC) against the project even though Karnataka held that it would not affect the flow of water to lower riparian state Tamil Nadu.

      Blackbucks

      Why in News?

      • Odisha’s blackbuck population has doubled in the last six years, as per the figures releasedby the chief conservator of forest (wildlife).
      • Blackbucks are found only in the Ganjam district in the southern part of Odisha.
      • Protection status:
        • Schedule-1Animal according to the WPA, 1972 (amended in 1992).
        • IUCN Status:Vulnerable
      • In Odisha, the blackbuck is known as Krushnasara Mruga.

      Related Information:

      • Bishnoi community of Rajasthan is popular for their conservation efforts to protect blackbuck and Chinkara.

        Polity and Governance

        MPLAD Scheme

        Why in News?

        • Recently, MPs have written to the speaker Om Birla to restart the Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS). GoIunder Disaster Management Act suspended MPLAD scheme in April 2020.

        About MPLADS:

        • It was launched in December, 1993.
        • It seeks to provide a mechanism for the MPs to recommend developmental works, creation of durable community assets and for provision of basic facilities like community infrastructure, based on locally felt requirements.
        • It is fully funded by the Government of India.
        • The annual MPLADS fund entitlement per MP for his constituency is ₹5 crore.

        Key Features:

        • MPs must recommend every year, works costing at least 15 percent of the MPLADS entitlement for areas inhabited by SC population and 7.5 per cent for areas inhabited by ST population.
        • Funds are released in the form of grant-in-aid directly to the district
        • The funds so released under the scheme are non-lapsable.
        • The MPs only have a recommendatory role under the MPLAD scheme.
        • The district authority is empowered to examine the eligibility of works, sanction funds and select the implementing agencies, supervise overall execution, and monitor the scheme at the ground level.

        Recommendation of works:

        • The elected MPs of Lok Sabha can recommend works in their respective constituencies.
        • The electedMPs of the Rajya Sabha can recommend works anywhere in the state from which they are elected.
        • Nominated members of both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha can select works for implementation anywhere in the country.

        National Green Tribunal (NGT)

        Why in News?

        Recently, NGT withheld the permission on expansion of NTPC plant in Telangana.

        About NGT:

        • It is anstatutory body set up under the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010.
        • It was created for effective and expeditious disposal of cases pertaining to environmental protection, conservation of forests and of other natural resources.
        • With the establishment of the NGT, India became the third country in the world to set up a specialised environmental tribunal, after Australia and New Zealand.
        • NGT is mandated to dispose ofthe applications or appeals finally within 6 months of their filing.
        • The NGT has five places of sittings:
          • New Delhi (Principal place of sitting)
          • Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai

        Composition of NGT

        • NGT comprises of the
          • Chairperson,
          • the Judicial Members, and
          • Expert Members.
        • They hold office for term of five years and are they arenot eligible for reappointment.
        • The Chairperson of NGT is appointed by the GoI in consultation with the Chief Justice of India (CJI).
        • There are to beat least 10 and maximum 20 full time Judicial members and Expert Members in the NGT.

        Powers & Jurisdiction of NGT:

        • It has jurisdiction over all civil cases involving substantial question relating to environment (including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment).
        • It also has appellate jurisdiction to hear appeal as a Court (Tribunal).
        • It is not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure (CrPC)1908, butare be guided by principles of natural justice.
        • While passing any order/decision/ decree, it applies principles of sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principle.
        • It is empowered by an order, to providerelief and compensation to
          • the victims of pollution and other environmental damage.
          • for restitution of property damaged, and
          • for restitution of the environment for such area or other areas, as the it may think fit.
        • The order/decision/award of NGT is executable as a decree of a civil court.
        • The NGT Act also empowers NGTto enforce a penalty for non-compliance.
        • An appeal against order/decision/ award of the NGT lies directly to the Supreme Court, generally within ninety days from the date of communication.

        The NGT deals with civil cases under the following seven laws related to the environment:

        • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974,
        • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977,
        • The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980,
        • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
        • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986,
        • The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and
        • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

        Places in News

        Cauvery (Kaveri) River

        • Source: The river originatesnearBrahmagiri Hill of the Western Ghats in southwestern Karnataka.
        • Drainage Basin:Karnataka and Tamil Nadu,
          • The river falls intoBay of Bengaltowards the south of Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu.
          • Prior to falling the river breaks into many distributaries forming a wide delta called the Garden of southern India.
        • Tributaries: Arkavathi,Shimsa, Kabini, Hemavathi, Lakshmana Theertha, and Harangi.

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