Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|30 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

30 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 
  • Apollo 11 Mission 
  • Earthquake 
  • Antimicrobial Resistance 
Art and Culture 
  • Kathakali Dance Form
Governmental Initiatives 
  • Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF)
International Relations
  • Human Rights Watch (HRW) 

Science and Technology

Apollo 11 Mission

Why in News?

Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, who was the pilot of the spaceship from which Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin left to make their historic first steps on the moon in 1969, died recently.

About Apollo 11 Mission:

  • It was the first manned mission to land on the Moon.
  • On July 20, 1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin became the first humans ever to land on the moon.
  • The Apollo program aimed to land humans on the Moon and also bring them safely back to Earth.
  • Apollo missions was announced during the Cold War-era when the USA was still trailing the Soviet Union in space developments.


Why in News?

Recently,a powerful earthquake measuring 6.4 on the Richter Scale jolted Assam and parts of Northeast India.

About Earthquake:

  • An earthquake is a natural eventreferring to the shaking of the earth.
  • It is caused due to release of energy inside earth which generate waves that travel in all directions.
  • The vibrations calledseismic waves are generated from earthquakes which travel through the Earth.
  • These waves are recorded on instruments called seismographs.
  • The location below the earth’s surface exactly where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter.
  • The location directly above hypocenter on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter.
  • Types of Earthquake:
    • Fault Zones, Tectonic Earthquakes, Volcanic Earthquake, Human Induced Earthquakes.

About Seismic Hazard Map of India

  • India is among the highly earthquake affected countries due to the presence of technically active young fold mountains – Himalaya.
  • India is divided into four seismic zones (II, III, IV, and V) on the basis of:
    • Scientific inputs relating to seismicity,
    • Earthquakes occurred in the past,
    • Tectonic setup of the region.
  • BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) is the official agency for publishing the seismic hazard maps and codes.

    Antimicrobial Resistance

    Why in News?

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is afast-growing global problem due to which the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic may further contribute.

    About Antimicrobial Resistance:

    • It is the resistance acquired by any microorganism (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasite) against antimicrobial drugs (like antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, anthelmintics, etc) that are used to treat these infections.
    • Thus the standard treatments become ineffective, and the infections persist.
    • These microorganisms which develop antimicrobial resistance are also referred to as superbugs.

    How does Antimicrobial Resistance develop?

    • Some bacteria due to the presence of specific resistance genes are intrinsically resistant and hence survive when exposed to antibiotics.
    • Some microorganisms, bygenetic mutations survive antibiotic exposure.
    • The misuse of antimicrobials in medicine due to their easy over the counter presence.
    • Inappropriate use of antimicrobial substances in agriculture.
    • Contamination around pharmaceutical manufacturing sites where untreated waste is released, also cause AMR among nearby population.

    Art and Culture

    Kathakali Dance Form

    Why in News?

    Video Recording of Kathakali play Santhanagopalamwill be screened with subtitles for international audience.

    About Kathakali:

    • Kathakali is a classical dance form associated with Kerala.
    • It derives its name from ‘Katha’ meaning story and ‘kali’ meaning drama.
    • KoodiyattammChakiarkoothu, Ramanattamand Krishnattam are few of the ritual performing arts of Kerala to which the origin of Kathakali is generally attributed to.
    • Kathakali is a blend of dance, music and acting which dramatizes stories, mostly adapted from the Indian epics.
    • It is known for use of heavy make-up and stunning costumes (elaborate masks, huge skirts and big head-dresses).
    • Different facial and costume colours indicate different mental stages & character, e.g.:
      • Green – nobility,
      • Black – wicked,
      • Red patches – combining royalty & evil.
    • Hand gestures, facial expressions with eye movements are important aspect of this dance form.
    • Renowned Malayali poet Vallathol Narayana Menonis known to revive it in modern times.
    • Prominent Artists: Ramankutty Nair and Kalamandalam Gopi, Guru KunchuKurup, Gopi Nath, Rita Ganguly, etc.

      Governmental Initiatives

      Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF)

      Why in News?

      AIF has recently crossed the ₹8000 crore mark after receiving 8,665 applications worth ₹ 8,216 crores.

      About AIF:

      • It is a medium to long term debt financing facility available for investment in viable agricultural projects through interest subvention and credit guarantee.
      • It is a central sector scheme.
      • The scheme is available for 10 years ie, from FY2020 to FY2029.

      Eligible beneficiaries:

      • Farmers, FPOs,Joint Liability Groups (JLGs), Marketing Cooperative Societies, SHGs, , Multipurpose Cooperative Societies, Agri-entrepreneurs, Start-ups, etc.

      Interest subvention:

      • All loans under this AIF will have interest subvention of 3% per annum (up to a limit of Rs. 2 Crore).
      • The subvention will be available for a maximum period of seven years.

      Credit guarantee:

      • It will be available for eligible borrowers from AIF under Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE) for a loan up to ₹2 crore.
      • The fee for this coverage is to be paid by the GoI.

      International Relations

      Human Rights Watch (HRW)

      Why in News?

      Human Rights Watch has recently stated that Israel is committing the crime of apartheid by seeking to maintain Jewish domination over Palestinians and its own Arab population.

      About HRW:

      • It is an international NGO, headquartered in New York City.
      • Itprimarily conducts research and advocacy on human rights across the globe.
      • HRW pressures governments, policy makers, companies, and individuals to denounce abuse and respect human rights.
      • HRW received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997.

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