Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 01 June 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

01 June 2022-Wednesday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Goa's Statehood Day

Why in the news?

On Goa’s Statehood Day (30th May), the Prime Minister greeted the state’s citizens.

What are the main attractions in Goa?

  • Goa is located on India’s southern coast, within the Konkan area, and is geographically separated from the Deccan highlands by the Western Ghats.
  • Capital: \s Panji.
  • Official Language: Konkani, one of the 22 languages listed in the Eight Schedule.
  • It is bounded to the north by Maharashtra and to the east and south by Karnataka, with the Arabian Sea defining its western coast.


  • When India declared independence on August 15, 1947, it demanded that the Portuguese handover their territory. The Portuguese, though, refused.
  • The Indian government launched Operation Vijay in 1961, annexing the islands of Daman and Diu as well as Goa to the Indian mainland.
  • Every year on December 19th, India commemorates Goa Liberation Day.
  • It should be emphasised that the Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in India (1498) and the last to leave (1961).
  • The territory was divided on May 30, 1987, and Goa was founded. Daman and Diu remained part of the Union Territory.


  • Sonsogor is Goa’s highest point.
  • The Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona, and Sal are Goa’s seven major rivers.
  • Laterites make up the majority of Goa’s soil cover.
  • National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries: Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Wildlife Sanctuary of Cotigao
  • Mollem National Park
  • Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary

2022 Bharat Drone Mahotsav

Why in the news?

  • The Prime Minister has opened India’s largest Drone Festival, Bharat Drone Mahotsav 2022, in New Delhi.
  • The primary events included a virtual awarding of drone pilot certifications, panel talks, product introductions, the display of a ‘Made in India’ Drone Taxi prototype, and flying demonstrations, among others.

What exactly are drones?

  • Drone is slang for Unmanned Aircraft System (UA).
  • Drones, which were originally designed for the military and aerospace industries, have found their way into the mainstream due to the increased levels of safety and efficiency they provide.
  • The level of autonomy of a drone can range from remotely piloted (a human controls its movements) to sophisticated autonomy (a system of sensors and LIDAR detectors calculates its movement).

What are the Drone Technology Applications?


  • Drones can be used to disseminate micronutrients in the agricultural industry.
  • It can also be used to conduct surveys to identify the issues that farmers confront.
  • Drones can be employed as a symmetric weapon against terrorist attacks.
  • Drones have the potential to be integrated into the national aviation system.
  • Drones can be deployed for combat, communication in remote places, and counter-drone measures.
  • Healthcare Delivery Objectives: The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) developed the i-drone Drone-Based Vaccine Delivery Model. Telangana and the north-eastern states have been granted permission to use this drone technology to deliver immunizations in remote locations.


  • In less than a year, the drone technology used in the Government of India’s SVAMITVA scheme has assisted about 500,000 village inhabitants in obtaining property cards by mapping out heavily populated areas.
  • Drones can be utilised for real-time asset and transmission line surveillance, theft prevention, visual inspection/maintenance, construction planning and management, and so on.
  • They can be used for anti-poaching operations, forest and wildlife monitoring, pollution assessment, and evidence gathering.
  • Drones are also useful for law enforcement, fire and emergency services, and healthcare services in situations where human intervention is not safe.

What is the meaning of Drone Mahotsav?

  • Drone technology promotion is another means of strengthening our commitment to good governance and ease of living.
  • Drones are a clever instrument that will become an integral part of the lives of ordinary people.
  • Drone technology has applications in a wide range of fields, including defence, disaster management, agriculture, healthcare, tourism, film, and entertainment, and there is a strong prospect of a huge revolution that will provide massive job opportunities.
  • Roads, power, optical fibre, and digital technology are making their way into villages. However, agriculture work is still done in traditional ways, resulting in inefficiencies, low productivity, and waste.
  • Drone technology will play a significant part in empowering farmers and modernising their lifestyles.
  • The government is working to build a strong drone manufacturing ecosystem in India through programmes such as the Production-Linked Incentive Scheme (PLI).

What are the Drone Regulations for 2021?

  • The Ministry approved liberalised drone laws in 2021 with the goal of encouraging R&D and making India a drone hub.
  • Several licences and approvals were repealed. The number of forms that must be completed was lowered from 25 to five, and the charge categories were cut from 72 to four.
  • Drones are not permitted to operate in green zones, and no remote pilot licence is required for non-commercial use of micro and nano drones.
  • Payloads of up to 500kg have been permitted, allowing the drones to be utilised as unmanned flying taxis.
  • Foreign ownership of drone-operating enterprises is also authorised.

What is the Drone PLI Scheme?

  • The government also approved a Rs. 120 crore Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for drones and their components over three fiscal years.
  • The PLI Scheme for the drone and drone component sector addresses the strategic, tactical, and operational applications of this ground-breaking technology.

What exactly is the Drone Shakti Plan?

  • The Union Budget pushed on drone promotion through businesses and talent development at Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs).
  • Startups will be encouraged to facilitate ‘Drone Shakti’ via various applications and Drone-As-A-Service (DrAAS). Skill-development courses will also begin in selected ITIs across all states.
  • DrAAS enables businesses to obtain a variety of services from drone firms, eliminating the need for them to invest in drone hardware or software, pilots, or training programmes.
  • There are numerous industries where drones can be used. Photography, agriculture, mining, telecommunications, insurance, telecommunications, oil and gas, construction, transportation, disaster management, geospatial mapping, forest and wildlife, defence, and law enforcement are just a few examples.
  • Drones will also be supported for crop evaluation, land record digitization, and insecticide and nutrient spraying (Kisan Drones).
  • Over the next three years, the drone services industry is predicted to develop to over Rs 30,000 crore and create over five lakh employment.

The Way Forward

  • Drones were subject to several regulations just a few months ago. However, the majority of the restrictions have now been lifted in a very short period of time.
  • Easy access to technology will aid in the realisation of the saturation vision and in ensuring last-mile delivery.
  • The government is attempting to make technology available to the general public in order to provide the country greater strength, speed, and scale.

Relocation of Cheetahs in India

Why in the news?

  • India will soon release cheetahs from South Africa and Namibia into the wild in Kuno Palpur in Madhya Pradesh’s Sheopur district.
  • It will kick off India’s ambitious initiative to relocate cheetahs across continents.
  • The last spotted cheetah in the country died in Chhattisgarh in 1947, and the species was declared extinct in the country in 1952.
  • The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) planned a cheetah reintroduction initiative several years ago.

What Are the Important Facts About Cheetahs?

  • The cheetah is one of the oldest big cat species, with ancestors dating back more than five million years to the Miocene epoch.
  • The cheetah is also the fastest terrestrial mammal on the planet, living in Africa and Asia.
  • Acinonyx Jubatus is the scientific name for the African Cheetah.
  • They have somewhat brownish and golden skin that is thicker than that of Asiatic Cheetahs.
  • They have far more noticeable spots and lines on their faces than their Asian cousins.


Found in thousands across the African continent.

  • Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
  • Appendix 1 of CITES.
  • WPA Schedule No. 2

Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus is the scientific name for the Asiatic Cheetah.


A little smaller than African Cheetahs.

They have pale yellowish fawn skin and thicker fur under their body, particularly on the belly.

  • Adding an image…
  • Only found in Iran, with fewer than 100 individuals remaining.
  • IUCN Red List status: critically endangered.
  • Appendix 1 of CITES.
  • Schedule-2 of the WPA

What are the dangers?

  • Human-wildlife conflict, habitat loss and prey decline, and illegal trafficking
  • Deforestation and cultivation reduced forest land and cheetah habitat.
  • Climate change and rising human populations have only exacerbated these issues.

What are the Native American Conservation Efforts?

  • Seven years ago, the Wildlife Institute of India devised a Rs 260-crore cheetah reintroduction scheme.
  • This could be the first intercontinental cheetah translocation project in history.
  • The Ministry of Environment announced a “Action Plan for Cheetah Introduction in India” during the 19th meeting of the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has agreed to import 50 African Cheetahs from Namibia during the next five years.

What are the main attractions of Kuno National Park?

  • Kuno National Park in Madhya Pradesh is a one-of-a-kind destination for all wildlife aficionados.
  • It boasts a healthy chital, sambar, nilgai, wild pig, chinkara, and cow population.
  • The leopard and striped hyena are currently the only larger carnivores within the National Park, with the lone tiger having returned earlier this year.

Other’s News

UN Peacekeeping Operations

The Blue Helmets peacekeepers of the UN Organization Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) have foiled an attack by an armed group in the Congo.

  • In 2010, the UN Organization Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) succeeded a previous UN peacekeeping mission.
  • MONUSCO’s mission is to safeguard civilians, humanitarian staff, and human rights defenders from physical violence.
  • It also attempts to assist the country’s administration in its efforts to stabilise and consolidate peace.
The United Nations Peacekeeping Mission
  • This mission is a collaboration between the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Department of Operational Support.
  • Its goal is to help host countries transition from strife to peace.
  • The United Nations started its peacekeeping efforts in 1948, when it sent military observers to West Asia.
  • The United Nations Peacekeepers provide security as well as political and peace-building assistance to conflict-affected countries.
  • Consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force except in self-defense and defence of the mandate are the three core principles that guide the United Nations’ peacekeeping deployments.
  • India has been one of the most significant troop contributors to UN peacekeeping deployments.
  • India was the first country to send an all-female troop to a UN Peacekeeping mission in 2007.
Helmets in blue
  • They are UN military personnel who operate alongside UN Police and civilian colleagues to foster processes of stability, security, and peace.
  • The term comes from the characteristic blue helmets that the troops wear.
  • All Blue Helmets military troops are first and foremost members of their national army who are seconded to work under UN command.
  • African and Asian countries contribute more soldiers to Blue Helmets than their Western counterparts.
Enlistment –
  • The United Nations Office of Military Affairs recruits highly qualified military officers from UN member countries for service in UN peacekeeping deployments across the world.
  • Military officers from Troop-Contributing Countries will serve as individual Staff Officers, Military Observers, or as part of an organised unit.
  • Staff officers are also stationed at the UN headquarters, where they monitor all aspects of troop deployment on the ground.
  • Blue Helmets are usually seconded to work under the UN flag for up to a year in the field or 2 or 3 years at the headquarters.


Under the Buy (Indian-IDDM) category of defence acquisition, the Ministry of Defence inked a deal with Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) for the supply of ASTRA MK-I Missiles to the Indian Air Force (IAF) and Indian Navy.

  • ASTRA MK-I is an Air to Air Missile with a Beyond Visual Range (BVR) (AAM).
  • It was designed and developed in-house by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in collaboration with the Indian Air Force (IAF).
  • BVM missiles can engage targets beyond a range of 37 kilometres.
  • To kill an aerial target, AAMs are fired from an airborne asset.
  • It can travel at speeds greater than four times the speed of sound and reach a maximum altitude of 20 kilometres, making it ideal for air combat.
  • The missile will be fully integrated on the Su 30 MK-I fighter aircraft and phasedly integrated with other fighter aircraft, including the Light Combat Aircraft (Tejas).
  • The missile will be integrated into the Indian Navy’s MiG 29K fighter aircraft, which are stationed aboard aircraft carriers.
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