Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 02 May 2022

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Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 02 May 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

02 May 2022-Monday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Conundrum of Dual Governance in New Delhi

Why in the news?

Because Delhi lacks statehood, there has been a protracted conflict over the relative powers of the elected government of New Delhi and the Lieutenant Governor (L-G) (appointed by the Union Government) for the territorial administration of New Delhi.

The two had numerous disagreements, including control of agencies such as the Anti-Corruption Bureau, the Civil Services, and the Electricity Board, among others.

Furthermore, the 2021 amendment to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi Act,1991, emphasises that the possibility of conflict remains.

What is New Delhi’s Governance Model?

The status of Delhi as a Union Territory under Schedule 1 of the Constitution, but renamed the “National Capital Territory” under Article 239AA, as engrafted by the Constitution (69th Amendment) Act.

The 69th amendment to the Indian Constitution added Article 239AA, which declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be administered by an L-G who works with the assistance and advice of the elected legislative assembly.

The ‘aid and advice’ clause, on the other hand, applies only to matters over which the elected Assembly has authority under the State and Concurrent Lists, with the exception of public order, police, and land.

Furthermore, Article 239AA states that the L-G must either act on the advice and assistance of the Council of Ministers, or he must implement the President’s decision on a reference made by him.

Furthermore, Article 239AA empowers the L-G to refer a disagreement with the Council of Ministers on “any matter” to the President.

As a result of this dual control between L-G and the elected government, a power struggle ensues.

What is the Judiciary’s position on this?

The Delhi High Court ruled in favour of the Central Government, citing Delhi’s status as a Union Territory.

However, the Supreme Court referred the case to a Constitution Bench to rule on the substantive legal issues pertaining to the powers of Delhi’s elected government in relation to the Lieutenant Governor (L-G).

The case that was referred to the Constitutional Court is known as the NCT vs UOI case, 2018. The five-judge Bench began a new jurisprudential chapter in NCT Administration.

Purposive Construction: The court used the rule of purposive construction to state that the goals of the Constitution (69th Amendment) Act should guide the interpretation of Article 239AA.

This incorporates federalism and democracy principles into Article 239AA, indicating parliamentary intent to grant a sui generis (of its own kind) status distinct from other Union Territories.

L-G to Take Action on Aid and Advice: The Court declared that the L-G is bound by the Council of Ministers’ “aid and advice,” noting that the Delhi Assembly also has the power to make laws over all subjects on the Concurrent List and all subjects on the State List, with the exception of three excluded subjects.

Except when referring a matter to the President for a final decision, the L-G should act on the “aid and advice” of the Council of Ministers.

Any Matter is Not Every Matter:

Regarding the L-authority G’s to refer to the President any matter on which the L-G and the Council of Ministers disagree, the Supreme Court ruled that “any matter” cannot be interpreted to mean “every matter,” and such a reference shall occur only in exceptional circumstances.

L-G as facilitator:

Rather than anointing himself as an adversary to the elected Council of Ministers, L-G shall act as a facilitator.

New Delhi (India) At the same time, the Court ruled that the National Capital Territory of Delhi cannot be granted statehood under the constitutional scheme.

Working Through Constitutional Trust: The Supreme Court correctly concluded that the scheme outlined in the Constitution and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi Act, 1991 envisions a collaborative structure that can only be implemented through constitutional trust.

Ensuring Subsidiarity: The foundational principle of fiscal federalism, subsidiarity, necessitates empowered sub-national governments.

As a result, the federal government should shift toward delegating more authority to local governments.

In this regard, India should take a cue from several large metropolises around the world, ranging from Jakarta and Seoul to London and Paris, which have strong sub-national governments.

The India Semiconductor Mission

Why in the news?

In Bengaluru, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology recently launched the first Semicon India 2022 Conference as part of the India Semiconductor Mission.

Semicon India – 2022 was organised to carry forward the Prime Minister’s vision of making India a leader in electronics manufacturing, semiconductor design, manufacturing, and innovation.

The conference’s theme is “Catalyzing India’s Semiconductor Ecosystem.”

What exactly are Semiconductors?

Any of a class of crystalline solids with electrical conductivity intermediate between a conductor and an insulator.

Semiconductors are used to make a variety of electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. Because of their compactness, dependability, power efficiency, and low cost, such devices have found widespread application.

They have found use as discrete components in power devices, optical sensors, and light emitters, including solid-state lasers.

What exactly is India Semiconductor Mission?

The ISM was launched in 2021 with a total financial outlay of Rs76,000 crore under the auspices of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).

It is a component of the country’s comprehensive programme for the development of a sustainable semiconductor and display ecosystem.

The program’s goal is to provide financial assistance to companies that invest in semiconductors, display manufacturing, and the design ecosystem.

ISM, which is envisioned to be led by global experts in the Semiconductor and Display industries, will serve as the nodal agency for the schemes’ efficient, coherent, and smooth implementation.

Components: Scheme for the Establishment of Semiconductor Fabs in India: It provides fiscal support to eligible applicants for the Establishment of Semiconductor Fabs, with the goal of attracting large investments for the establishment of semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities in the country.

Scheme for the establishment of Display Fabs in India: It provides fiscal support to eligible applicants for the establishment of Display Fabs, with the goal of attracting large investments for the establishment of TFT LCD / AMOLED-based display fabrication facilities in the country.

Compound Semiconductors/Silicon Photonics/Sensors Fab and Semiconductor Assembly, Testing, Marking, and Packaging (ATMP) / OSAT facilities in India:

The Scheme provides eligible applicants with a fiscal support of 30% of the Capital Expenditure for the establishment of Compound Semiconductors / Silicon Photonics (SiPh) / Sensors (including MEMS) Fab and Semiconductor ATMP / OSAT (Outsourced Semiconductor Assembly and Test) facilities in India.

Scheme for Design Linked Incentive (DLI):

It provides financial incentives and design infrastructure support for Integrated Circuits (ICs), Chipsets, System on Chips (SoCs), Systems & IP Cores, and semiconductor linked design at various stages of development and deployment.

Vision:

 To establish a thriving semiconductor and display design and innovation ecosystem that will allow India to emerge as a global hub for electronics manufacturing and design.

Significance:

ISM is critical for organising efforts to promote the semiconductor and display industries in a more structured, focused, and comprehensive manner.

It will develop a comprehensive long-term strategy for developing the country’s semiconductor and display manufacturing facilities, as well as the semiconductor design ecosystem.

It will accelerate the adoption of trusted electronics by ensuring the security of semiconductor and display supply chains, which include raw materials, specialty chemicals, gases, and manufacturing equipment.

It will facilitate the multiplication of the Indian semiconductor design industry by providing the necessary support in the form of Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, foundry services, and other suitable mechanisms for early-stage startups.

Why is there such a strong need to promote the semiconductor industry?

Semiconductor technology is at the heart of modern economics.

In today’s technological world, where almost everything revolves around electronic gadgets, the importance of these microchips cannot be overstated. These chips, also known as Integrated Circuits (ICs), are primarily made of silicon and germanium.

There would be no smart phones, radios, televisions, laptops, computers, or even advanced medical equipment without these chips.

They are used in the production of electronic devices. In addition, with the advent of e-vehicles, the demand for semiconductors is expected to skyrocket.

The Covid-19 pandemic has demonstrated that demand for electronic devices will only rise from here.

All in all, the industry appears to be an appealing place to make early inroads.

India’s semiconductor consumption is expected to exceed USD 80 billion by 2026 and USD 110 billion by 2030.

These chips are manufactured in a small number of countries around the world.

The United States of America, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, and the Netherlands dominate the industry.

Germany is also a growing IC producer.

All of this suggests that India should board the bus as soon as possible.

What are the Semiconductors-Related Initiatives?

Semi-conductor Laboratory (SCL): MeitY will take the necessary steps to modernise and commercialise the Semi-conductor Laboratory (SCL).

Regarding Compound Semiconductors:

The government will provide fiscal support for up to 30% of approved Compound Semiconductors units’ capital expenditures.

Production Linked Incentives: A total of Rs.55,392 crore (7.5 billion USD) in incentive support has been approved under the Product Linked Incentive (PLI) for Largest Scale Electronics Manufacturing, PLI for IT Hardware, SPECS Scheme, and Modified Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMC 2.0) Scheme.

The Way Forward

Semiconductors and displays are at the heart of modern electronics, powering the next stage of digital transformation under Industry 4.0.

With the assistance of a global major, India’s PSEs such as Bharat Electronics Ltd or Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd can be used to establish a semiconductor fab foundry.

India must abandon its dream of swadeshi semiconductors. Instead, it should strive to become a key player in a trusted, plurilateral semiconductor ecosystem that keeps key competitors at bay.

Favorable trade policies are essential for the development of a plurilateral semiconductor ecosystem.

National Curriculum Framework Mandate Document

Why in the news?

The Ministry of Education recently published the “mandate document” for a National Curriculum Framework under the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.

The mandate document is intended to effect a paradigm shift by emphasising holistic child development, skill development, the critical role of teachers, learning in one’s mother tongue, and cultural rootedness.

It is also a step toward decolonizing India’s educational system.

What exactly is the National Curriculum Framework (NCF)?

The new National Curriculum Framework (NCF), which will empower and enable outstanding teaching and learning in the country by transforming the vision of the NEP 2020 into reality in our schools and classrooms, is central to the implementation of the transformative National Education Policy 2020.

The National Steering Committee (NSC), chaired by Dr. K Kasturirangan, guides the development of the NCF, which is supported by the Mandate Group and the National Council for Education Research and Training (NCERT).

The National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE), the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCFECCE), the National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE), and the National Curriculum Framework for Adult Education will be included in the NCF (NCFAE).

According to the government, the NEP is the philosophy, the National Curriculum Framework is the pathway, and the mandate document released today is the constitution to champion the changing demands of the twenty-first century and positively impact the future.

The mandate group has set the deadline of February 28th, 2023 for the revision of syllabi based on the new NCF.

What are the Mandate Document’s Highlights?

Consultative Process: It establishes the mechanisms for the development of a coherent and comprehensive NCF, making full use of the extensive consultations that are already underway.

Multi-Disciplinary Education: The process designed ensures the seamless integration imagined in the NEP 2020 – both vertically (across Stages) and horizontally – to ensure holistic, integrated, and multi-disciplinary education.

Conducive Teaching Environment: It enables the critical linkage between school curriculum and teacher education curriculum as an integral part of the transformative reforms envisioned by the NEP 2020.

As a result, all of our teachers can benefit from rigorous preparation, ongoing professional development, and a positive working environment.
Life-long Learning: It contributes to the development of opportunities for life-long learning for all citizens in the country.

Concentrate on Cutting-Edge Research: Anchored and informed by sound theory and cutting-edge research, but presented in simple language with real-life examples from classrooms and schools in a variety of settings.

Addressing Huge Learning Loss: The states and the Center “must act urgently” to address the “huge learning loss” among students as a result of the pandemic’s interruptions in regular teaching and learning over the last two years.

What does it mean to say that the Indian education system has been decolonized?

For three centuries, industrialization and its attendant imperialism and colonialism have had an impact on the world.

For over two centuries, India has been a British Empire colony.

During these eventful two centuries of Indian history, Britain’s influence was felt not only in terms of its political and economic might, but also in every aspect of Indian life.

Under the patronage of the colonial-state, India’s indigenous education system was gradually displaced, and the colonial model of education pervaded.

The colonizer’s language, pedagogy, evaluation, and knowledge became naturalis obligato (Natural Obligation) for the colony’s population.

Despite the fact that India gained independence in 1947, the western world continues to dominate the Indian educational system.

As a result, there is an urgent need to decolonize the Indian educational system.

Other’s News

Passport for Batteries

A German-funded consortium of 11 carmakers and battery manufacturers, including BMW, Umicore, and BASF, plans to create a “battery passport” that will track the content and carbon footprint of batteries in Europe.

Based on a comprehensive definition of a sustainable battery, the Battery Passport is a digital representation of a battery that conveys information about all applicable ESG and lifecycle requirements.

The digital Battery Passport platform will enable each Battery Passport to be a digital twin of its physical battery.

[The Battery Passport platform provides a global solution for sharing information and data in a secure manner.

This platform aims to go beyond managing the performance of a single battery to managing the performance of all batteries across the entire industry value chain.]

Batteries could be labelled with a QR code that connects to an online database where EV owners, businesses, and regulators can access information about the battery’s composition.

This digital tool should also make it easier to recycle raw materials inside batteries, reducing reliance on foreign suppliers who control the vast majority of resources required for battery production, such as lithium and nickel.

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