Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 03 Jan 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

03 Jan 2022-Monday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Faecal Sludge and Septage Management: NITI Aayog

Why in News

  • According to the NITI Aayog report Faecal sludge and septage management in urban areas, Service and business models, by 2021 more than 700 cities/towns are in various stages of Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) implementation.

Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM):

  • India has recognized the gaps in sanitation coverage and embarked purposefully to address them, becoming one of the first countries to announce a national policy on FSSM in 2017.
  • FSSM prioritizes human excreta management, a waste stream with the highest potential for spreading diseases.
  • It is a low-cost and easily scalable sanitation solution that focuses on the safe collection, transportation, treatment, and reuse of human waste.
  • As a result, FSSM promises a means to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target 6.2 of adequate and inclusive sanitation for all in a time-bound manner.

The capacity of India’s Sewage Treatment Plants:

  • According to the latest report of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) in India can treat a little more than a third of the sewage generated per day.
  • India generated 72,368 MLD (million liters per day) whereas the installed capacity of STPs was 31,841 MLD (43.9%).
  • 5 states and Union Territories (UT) – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, and Karnataka – account for 60% of the total installed treatment capacity of the country.

Issues with Solid Waste Management:

  • Absence of segregation of waste at source.
  • Lack of funds for waste management at Urban Local Bodies (ULB).
  • Lack of technical expertise and appropriate institutional arrangement.
  • Unwillingness of ULBs to introduce the proper collection, segregation, transportation, and treatment/disposal systems.
  • Indifference of citizens towards waste management due to lack of awareness.
  • Lack of community participation towards waste management and hygienic conditions.

Way Forward

  • The National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (NFSSM) Alliance has played a catalytic role in the FSSM sector in India.
  • To ensure long-term sustainability and quality implementation, states and cities must undertake capacity building, quality assurance and quality control, and monitoring.
  • Keeping the most vulnerable and underserved, women and urban poor at the center of this effort, states and cities must move quickly to introduce innovative solutions.

National Grid

Why in News

  • Recently, the Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL) celebrated the anniversary of the operationalization of One Nation-One Grid-One Frequency e National Grid.

Evolution of National Grid:

  • The Indian Power system for planning and operational purposes is divided into five regional grids.
  • The integration of regional grids, and thereby establishment of National Grid, was conceptualized in the early nineties.
  • Initially, State grids were interconnected to form a regional grid, and India was demarcated into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern, and Southern regions.
  • In august 2006 North and East grids were interconnected thereby 4 regional grids are synchronously connected forming a central grid operating at one frequency.
  • On 31st December 2013, the Southern Region was connected to the Central Grid. Thereby achieving ‘One Nation, One Grid, One Frequency’.
  • All possible measures are taken to ensure that the grid frequency always remains within the 49.90-50.05 Hz (hertz) band.

The capacity of National Grid:

  • Presently, the country has a total inter-regional transmission capacity of about 1,12,250 MW which is expected to be enhanced to about 1,18,740 MW by 2022.

Benefits of One Nation-One Grid-One Frequency:

  • Synchronisation of all regional grids will help in optimal utilization of scarce natural resources by transfer of Power from Resource centric regions to Load centric regions.
  • Further, this shall pave the way for the establishment of a vibrant Electricity market facilitating trading of power across regions.


Why in News:

  • Tamil Nadu Chief Minister announced Rs. 3 lakhs in solatium to the families of each of the deceased in a blast at a fireworks unit from the Chief Minister’s Public Relief Fund and Rs. 1 lakh to the injured.


  • Solatium, which first appeared in English in the early 19th century, is from Latin sōlātium or sōlācium. It means “solace” or “to console”.
  • Solatium is a form of compensation for emotional rather than physical or financial harm.
  • It is a payment made to a victim as compensation for injured feelings or emotional pain and suffering (such as the trauma following the wrongful death of a relative).

Dark Genome

Why in News:

  • Scientists investigating the ‘dark genome’ have discovered recently evolved regions that code for proteins associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


  • Human genome is conventionally divided into,
    1. Coding genome, which generates the ~20,000 annotated human protein-coding genes, and
    2. Dark genome, which does not encode proteins.
  • Dark genome is a vast space, accounting for the ~98.5% of genomic space where repeat elements, enhancers, regulatory sequences, and non-coding RNAs reside.
  • It comprises the DNA outside our genes. These are the regions, not classed as genes in the traditional sense, which create proteins.
  •  The scientists say that these new proteins can be used as biological indicators to distinguish between the two conditions – schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
  • It can also be used to identify patients more prone to psychosis or suicide.

IndiGau Chip

  • IndiGau is the world’s largest cattle genomic chip launched by the National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (NIAB), Hyderabad.
  • NAIB is an autonomous institution under the aegis of the Department of Biotechnology.
  • IndiGau is India’s first Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) based chip for the conservation of pure varieties of indigenous cattle breeds like, Gir, Kankrej, Sahiwal, Ongole, etc.
  • This chip will have practical utility in the Governments schemes to achieve the goal of conservation of our breeds with better characters and help towards doubling of farmers’ income by 2022.

Malabar Naval Exercise

  • Malabar is the most complex naval exercise India does with any other country.
  • It is a multilateral war-gaming naval exercise that was started in 1992.
  • It began as a bilateral exercise between the navies of India and the United States.
  • Two more editions of the exercise were carried out in 1995 and 1996, after which there was a break until 2002 in the aftermath of India’s nuclear tests.
  • Japan and Australia first participated in 2007, and since 2014, India, the US, and Japan have participated in the exercise every year.
  • Malabar, which began as a bilateral exercise between India and the U.S. in 1992 and became multilateral with the addition of Australia and Japan, has also significantly grown in scope and complexity.

Twenty-five editions of the exercise have been conducted till date with the last edition conducted in two phases in August and October 2021.

Two plant species discovered in Kerala

Why in News:

  • Researchers have reported two new plant species from the biodiversity-rich Western Ghats regions in Thiruvananthapuram and Wayanad districts.
  • They have been christened Fimbristylissunilii and Neanotisprabhuii.
  • A perennial plant of the Cyperaceae family, it stands 20-59 cm tall and was collected from an elevation of 1,100 metres.
  • Collected from the grasslands of Ponmudi hills, Thiruvananthapuram, Fimbristyl is sunil ii has been named after plant taxonomist C.N. Sunil.
  • It has been provisionally assessed as data deficient (DD) under the IUCN Red List categories.
  • Neanotis prabhu ii has been discovered in the Chembra Peak grasslands of Wayanad.
  • It hails from the family Rubiaceae and grows on high-altitude grasslands. It has been categorized as data deficient (DD).

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