Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 06 Jan 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

06 Jan 2022-Thrusday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre's manuals

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has released the manuals for the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) of the Cyber and Information Security Division.
  • The Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre is a Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) initiative aimed at combating cybercrime in the country.
  • Located in New Delhi, this state-of-the-art Cybercrime Centre provides a comprehensive and coordinated response to all sorts of cybercrime.
  • It recognises the research needs of Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) and conducts R&D operations in collaboration with institutions in India and overseas to create new technologies and forensic techniques.
  • It is designed to stop the abuse of cyberspace by extremist and terrorist organisations.
  • It even makes recommendations for amending cyber laws to keep up with rapidly evolving technology and international collaboration.
  • It intends to coordinate all actions relating to the execution of Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLAT) with other countries pertaining to cybercrime in conjunction with the appropriate MHA nodal body.
  • Components of I4C
  • The platform for Joint Cyber Crime Investigation Team.
  • National Cyber Crime Threat Analytics Unit,
  • National Cyber Crime Training Centre,
  • National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal,
  • National Cyber Crime Forensic Laboratory Ecosystem.
  • National Cyber Crime Research and Innovation Centre,
  • Cyber Crime Ecosystem Management Unit

Index of the Eight Core Industries

Why in News:

  • The Office of the Economic Adviser, Department for Promotion of Industry, and Internal Trade, has issued the Index of Eight Core Industries for November 2021, which is based on data from the previous month.

About the Core Industries:

  • The base year for the Index of Eight Core Industries is 2011-12, with a value of 100.
  • Coal, crude oil, natural gas, petroleum refinery products, fertilisers, steel, cement, and electricity are the eight core industries of the country.
  • These Core Industries account for 40.27 per cent of the total weight of the goods included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) calculation (IIP).
  • Since 2014, data on electricity production from renewable sources has also been included in the report.
  • Since 2019, a new steel product is known as Hot Rolled Pickled and Oiled (HRPO) has been added to the manufacture of finished steel under the item ‘Cold Rolled (CR) coils’, which is part of the ‘Cold Rolled (CR) coils’ category.

Whale Shark Saved in AP

Why in News:

  • The Andhra Pradesh Forest Department saved a 15-foot whale shark.

About Whale Shark:

  • The biggest fish in the world, the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), is the largest of its kind (its maximum size could be as large as 20 metres).
  • Whale sharks are white-spotted fish that could be found in tropical waters all around the globe.
  • Gujarat has the highest concentration of whale sharks in the Indo-Pacific area.
  • Whale sharks are a good indicator of the ocean’s general health since they eat plankton.
  • Like the basking shark, the whale shark is a filter feeder, meaning it feeds on plankton.
  • To consume, it juts out its monstrously enormous jaws and passively filters anything that comes into contact with them. The process is referred to as “cross-flow filtration.”
  • The whale shark travels great distances in search of food to sustain its enormous size and reproduction.
  • It is Endangered in IUCN Red List, Listed in Appendix II of CITES and included in Schedule I of Wild Life Protection Act, 1972.

IC15, India's first cryptocurrency index

What is new?

  • Crypto Wire created India’s first cryptocurrency index, “IC15”. It will track the performance of the 15 most traded cryptocurrencies as measured by market capitalization on the top cryptocurrency exchanges.

Aims of IC15:

  • To raise awareness and understanding about cryptocurrencies and the blockchain ecosystem, and
  • To assist investors in comprehending how virtual coin trading works.

How is IC15 built?

  • An Index Governance Committee (IGC) comprised of domain experts, industry practitioners, and academics will choose cryptocurrencies among the top 400 by market capitalization. Additionally, it will be responsible for monitoring and updating the index, including reshuffling the top 15 cryptocurrencies.
  • The index has a poor correlation with other asset classes since gains in IC15 do not always correspond to increases in other asset classes.
  • As of January 1, 2022, the IC15 index’s top four coins are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Binance Coin, and Solana.

Conditions of eligibility:

  • The qualifying coin must have traded on at least 90% of the days during the evaluation period and must rank among the top 100 most liquid cryptocurrencies by trading value.
  • The company’s circulation market capitalization should be in the top 50.
  • Following that, the committee will choose the top 15 cryptocurrencies. The index will beupdated on a quarterly basis.

What is the importance of this?

  • Crypto Wire reports that IC15 may be reproduced for the purpose of establishing index-linked products such as index funds or exchange-traded funds (ETFs).
  • IC15 is India’s first index capable of serving as a benchmark for both the underlying cryptocurrency market and fund manager performance.
  • Additionally, Robo-advisors, who give financial advice with little to very little human intervention, may utilize this index to develop lower-cost investment products.

Can index-based crypto investments help mitigate risk?

  • Index investing may be an effective method of risk diversification since a fund invests in a diversified portfolio of assets rather than a few scarce coins.
  • However, index-based investment may not completely eliminate the risks connected with crypto assets. For example, IC15 fell 50% in 2018, when other asset classes had maximum declines of 3-4 percent.
  • Additionally, bitcoin, and Ethereum account for 77 percent of the index’s weight, making it very susceptible to any instability in these two currencies.

The new education strategy is consistent with Mahatma Gandhi's "NaiTalim": Vice-President

Why in News?

  • The Vice President of India recently said that the New Education Policy adheres to Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘NaiTalim’ by emphasising the mother tongue as the medium of education at the elementary level.
  • He was speaking at the Mahatma Gandhi International Hindi University’s silver jubilee celebrations.

What is Mahatma Gandhi’s NaiTalim?

  • The term NaiTalim is a compound of two words: Nai, which means ‘new,’ and Talim, an Urdu word that interprets as ‘education.’
  • In 1937, Mahatma Gandhi coined the term “NaiTalim.”
  • The approach laid great emphasis on using the mother tongue as the medium of teaching, in addition to providing students with free obligatory education and skill training.

The idea was founded on four fundamental tenets:

  • Education or learning in the mother language should be combined with handicraft work;
  • Activity should be connected to the most essential vocational requirements in the community; and
  • Learning should be connected to vocational work.
  • Work should be productive and beneficial to society.

Mahatma Gandhi International Hindi University

  • The Mahatma Gandhi International Hindi University is located in New Delhi, India.
  • It was founded to realize Mahatma Gandhi’s dream. He was certain that Hindi should not only be the country’s national language but also attain the prestige of a global language.
  • Gandhi’s ideal was reflected in the resolutions adopted at the First World Hindi Conference held in Nagpur in 1975.
  • The first resolution urged that Hindi be designated an official language of the United Nations Organization, while the second determined to establish an International Hindi University at Wardha.

Project Beacon and Vijayak

Why in News?

  • The Border Roads Organisation (BRO), via its frontline projects – Vijayak and Beacon, has set a new record for maintaining vehicle access to the Zoji La pass on the Srinagar–Leh National Highway (Usually, it remains closed in winters due to high snow).
  • Zoji La: It is a high mountain pass in Ladakh’s Kargil area. It connects Ladakh’s Union Territory to the rest of the nation.

What is the purpose of Project Beacon?

  • It began operations in the 1960s. This is the BRO’s first project. Currently, the project is responsible for the construction and upkeep of road infrastructure in key parts of Kashmir.

What is Vijayak Project?

  • BRO started this project in 2010. Together with Project Himank, Project Vijayak is responsible for the building and maintenance of Ladakh’s key road infrastructure.

What are BRO’s other significant projects?

  • Project DAN TAK: Founded in 1961 with the goal of creating highways, telephone networks, and other significant infrastructure projects in Bhutan.
  • Project Sampark: BRO funded Project Sampark in 1975. It is responsible for the building, development, and maintenance of key roads in Jammu, Kathua, Doda, Udhampur, Rajouri, Reasi, and Poonch districts.

Automatic Generation Control

What’s New?

  • The Union Minister of Power and New and Renewable Energy inaugurated the Automatic Generation Control (AGC).

Why is Automatic Generation Control (AGC) required?

  • In India, renewable energy (RE) generation has been steadily increasing. However, the fluctuating nature of renewable energy needs real-time power balancing to maintain supply and demand in balance. As a result, the AGC has been established.

How may Automatic Generation Control (AGC) be of assistance?

  • Through the National Load Dispatch Centre, Power System Operation Corporation (POSOCO) operates AGC (NLDC).
  • NLDC may transmit signals to more than 50 power plants in the nation every four seconds through AGCin order to preserve the Indian Power System’s frequency and dependability.
  • This will result in more efficient and automated frequency regulation for the management of variable and intermittent renewable energy sources.

What importance does this launch have?

  • This is intended to help the government meet its ambitious goal of 500 GW of non-fossil fuel generation capacity by 2030.

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