Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 06 May 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

06 May 2022-Friday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

2022 Global Report on Food Crises

Why is this newsworthy?

The Global Network Against Food Crises just released its yearly report, Global Report on Food Crises 2022. (GNAFC).

The report is the GNAFC’s flagship product, and it is made possible through the Food Security Information Network (FSIN).

What exactly is the Food Security Information Network (FSIN)?

Food and Nutrition Security Information Network (FSIN) is a global initiative co-sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to strengthen food and nutrition security information systems in order to produce reliable and accurate data to guide analysis and decision-making.

What exactly is GNAFC?

It was founded in 2016 by the European Union, the FAO, and the World Food Programme.

It is a coalition of humanitarian and development organisations working together to avoid, prepare for, and respond to food crises, as well as to promote the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal to End Hunger (SDG 2).

What are the Key Highlights of the Report?

About:

Some 40 million more people globally experienced acute food insecurity at crisis or worse levels in 2021 than 2020. Over half a million Ethiopians, southern Madagascar, South Sudanese and Yemenese are suffering from acute food insecurity.

Over 193 million people in 53 countries or territories experienced acute food insecurity at crisis or worse levels in 2021.

Main Drivers for Food Insecurity:
Conflict:

Conflict forced 139 million people in 24 countries / territories into acute food insecurity.

This is an increase from 99 million in 23 countries / territories in 2020.

Extreme Weather:

It pushed almost 23 million people into severe food insecurity in eight countries and territories, up from 15.7 million in 15 nations and territories in 2020.

Economic Surprises:

Due to economic shocks, over 30 million people in 21 countries/territories experienced severe food insecurity in 2021, down from over 40 million people in 17 countries/territories in 2020.

What are the recommendations?

Need for an Integrated Strategy: To address the core causes of food crises, such as structural rural poverty, marginalisation, population increase, and vulnerable food systems, an integrated approach to prevention, anticipation, and improved targeting is required.

Smallholder agriculture must be prioritised:

The research emphasised the need of prioritising smallholder agriculture as a frontline humanitarian response, as a means of overcoming access barriers and reversing unfavourable long-term trends.

Strengthening a Coordinated Strategy: To guarantee that humanitarian, development, and peacekeeping actions are implemented in a comprehensive and coordinated way, a coordinated approach must be strengthened.

What is India’s Food Insecurity Situation?

According to the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) report, India would account for a quarter of the world’s food-insecure population in 2021, with a grain stock of 120 million tonnes (as of July 1, 2021).

According to estimates, approximately 237 crore people worldwide faced food insecurity in 2020, an increase of roughly 32 crores from 2019.

South Asia alone is responsible for 36% of global food insecurity.

Initiatives to Consider:
  • PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY)
  • One Nation One Ration Card
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana
  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi
  • Intensified Mission Indradhanush 3.0 Scheme

US’ Roe v. Wade Case 1973

Why is this newsworthy?

The US Supreme Court has chosen to overrule Roe v. Wade, 1973, the court’s historic 1973 decision that proclaimed abortion a constitutional right, according to a leak by political media firm Politico.

What is the Roe v. Wade decision?

The Supreme Court of the United States deemed abortion a constitutional right in the historic Roe versus Wade decision in 1973, setting a precedent for abortion regulations across the world.

In this decision, the United States Supreme Court overturned legislation making abortion unlawful in multiple states, ruling that abortion would be permitted up to the moment of foetal viability, or the point at which a baby may survive outside the womb.

At the time of the Roe decision, foetal viability was about 28 weeks (7 months), but experts today believe that breakthroughs in medicine have lowered the barrier to 23 or 24 weeks (6 months or a little less).

The point at which the rights of the woman and the rights of the unborn foetus can be separated is known as foetal viability.

This metre is used in abortion regulations all around the globe, although opponents of abortion contend that it is an arbitrary timeline chosen by legislators and the Supreme Court in Roe.

What is the current state of the abortion debate?

The abortion discussion refers to the continuous dispute over the moral, legal, and religious implications of induced abortion.

The self-described “pro-choice” and “pro-life” movements are active in the issue in many Western nations.

Pro-choice advocates stress a woman’s right to choose whether or not to terminate a pregnancy.

The pro-life view, on the other hand, emphasises the humanity of both the mother and the unborn, stating that a foetus is a human person who deserves legal protection.

Each movement has attempted to sway public opinion and gain legal backing for its cause, with varied degrees of success.

Many individuals feel that abortion is primarily a moral problem that involves the beginning of human personhood, foetal rights, and physical integrity.

What is the current situation?

The present case is a challenge to Mississippi’s abortion statute.

In 2018, Mississippi prohibited most abortions after 15 weeks, much before foetal viability and considerably earlier than Roe permitted, putting the 1973 decision in jeopardy.

Mississippi approved a “heartbeat” abortion law in 2019, which made most abortions illegal if embryonic cardiac activity was found, which is usually around six weeks.

Physicians who conducted an abortion after a foetal heartbeat was discovered might have their medical licences revoked under the heartbeat law.

Pregnancies caused by rape or incest were not exempt from the legislation.

A district court halted this bill as well, and the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans upheld the ruling in February 2020.

What effect will the decision have?

Because there is no federal statute safeguarding the right to abortion in the United States, repealing Roe would place abortion legislation solely in the hands of individual states.

In other words, by ignoring Roe versus Wade’s checks and balances and limiting human agency, the issue will no longer be considered a question of women’s rights.

It is also likely to have an influence on the greater human rights framework, pushing it away from the poor and voiceless.

What are India’s Abortion Laws?

Abortion remains a criminal offence under Section 312 of the Indian Penal Code of 1860.

The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 (MTP) and its amendments, on the other hand, merely make an exemption to the illegality of abortion.

Abortion is legal until 20 weeks of pregnancy under the MTP Act of 1971.

The abortion limit was raised to 24 weeks in 2021 by an amendment, but only for special categories of pregnant women, such as rape or incest survivors, and only with the approval of two registered doctors.

There is no time limit for abortion in the case of foetal impairment, although it is permitted by a medical board of specialised doctors established by state and union territory administrations.

Delimitation of J&K

Why is this newsworthy?

The final report for the delimitation of Assembly and parliamentary seats in Jammu and Kashmir was recently presented by a panel established by the Centre Government.

What is the purpose of the Commission?

The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019, increased the number of seats in the Assembly, necessitating delimitation.

The former J&K state had 111 seats, including 46 in Kashmir, 37 in Jammu, and four in Ladakh, as well as 24 seats set aside for Pakistan-controlled Kashmir (PoK).

The Constitution of India ruled the delimitation of parliamentary constituencies in the former state, while the Jammu and Kashmir Representation of the People Act, 1957 governed the delimitation of Assembly seats.

Following the abolition of J&K’s special status in 2019, the Constitution governs the delimitation of both Assembly and parliamentary seats.

On March 6, 2020, the Delimitation Commission was established.

It is chaired by retired Supreme Court Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai, and its members include the Chief Election Commissioner and J&K’s Chief Electoral Officer, as well as the state’s five MPs.

What modifications have been made?

The Commission has raised seven Assembly seats — six in Jammu (now 43 seats) and one in Kashmir (now one seat) (now 47).

It has also changed the structure of the existing Assembly seats dramatically.

In the Lok Sabha, the area has five Parliamentary Constituencies. The Jammu and Kashmir area was viewed by the Delimitation Commission as a single Union Territory.

The borders of the Anantnag and Jammu seats have been changed by the Commission.

The Pir Panjal area of Jammu, which includes the districts of Poonch and Rajouri and was formerly part of the Jammu parliamentary constituency, has now been included to Kashmir’s Anantnag seat.

A Shia-dominated area of Srinagar’s parliamentary seat has also been relocated to Baramulla.

Kashmiri Pandits:

 The Commission has recommended that at least two Kashmiri Migrants (Kashmiri Hindus) be represented in the Legislative Assembly.

It also suggested that the Centre consider awarding displaced individuals from Pakistan-occupied Kashmir who relocated to Jammu after Partition representation in the J&K Legislative Assembly.

Scheduled Tribes:

 For the first time, nine seats have been been aside for Scheduled Tribes.

Why is Exercise a Controversial Topic?

Only in J&K are constituency boundaries being revised, with the remainder of the country’s delimitation locked until 2026.

In J&K, the latest delimitation exercise took place in 1995.

The then-J&K government revised the J&K Representation of the People Act in 2002 to put a moratorium on delimitation until 2026, similar to the rest of the country.

The freeze was challenged in both the J&K High Court and the Supreme Court, which both upheld it.

While delimitation is often done based on Census population, the Commission stated that it will examine additional variables in the case of J&K, such as size, remoteness, and proximity to the border.

What Do the Assembly Seat Changes Mean?

While the 2011 Census served as the foundation for delimitation, the modifications imply that 44 percent of the population (Jammu) will vote in 48 percent of the seats, while 56 percent of the population (Kashmir) will vote in the remaining 52 percent.

What does delimitation imply?

According to the Election Commission, delimitation is the act of establishing or redrawing the limits or borders of geographical constituencies (Assembly or Lok Sabha seat) in a country or province with a legislative body.

The delimitation process is overseen by the Delimitation Commission, an independent high-powered panel whose decisions are binding and cannot be challenged in court.

Over the years, this activity has been carried out to redefine a constituency’s territory depending on its population size (based on the last Census).

The procedure may result in a change in the number of seats in a state, in addition to modifying the boundaries of a constituency.

In line with the Constitution, seats in the Assembly are also reserved for SC and ST.

The main goal is to give equal representation to equal sectors of the population in order to ensure a fair split of geographical areas and a level playing field for all political parties and individuals running for office.

What is Delimitation’s Constitutional Basis?

After each Census, Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act under Article 82.

Every Census, under Article 170, states are split into territorial constituencies according to the Delimitation Act.

The Union government establishes a Delimitation Commission after the Act is in effect.

The delimitation commission is an autonomous organisation established under Article 82 following each census, when Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act.

However, in 1950-51, the President (with the help of the Election Commission) conducted the first delimitation exercise.

In 1952, the Delimitation Commission Act was passed.

Under the Acts of 1952, 1962, 1972, and 2002, delimitation commissions were established four times: in 1952, 1963, 1973, and 2002.

After the 1981 and 1991 Censuses, there was no delimitation.

What Constitutes a Delimitation Commission?

The President of India appoints the Delimitation Commission, which collaborates with the Election Commission of India.

Composition:
  • Former Supreme Court justice
  • Chief Electoral Officer
  • Election Commissioners from each state.

Other’s News

Shigella

The food poisoning episode in Kasaragod, which claimed the life of a 16-year-old girl, was caused by Shigella bacteria, according to the Kerala health department.

The enterobacter family includes Shigella bacteria, which are bacteria that live in the intestine but do not all cause illness in humans.

It is a food and water-borne illness that mostly affects the bowel and produces diarrhoea, which can be bloody, stomach discomfort, and fever.

Spread – Because only a small number of germs are required to get someone sick, the infection spreads quickly.

It can happen if you eat tainted food or unclean fruits and vegetables.

It is easily transmitted by direct or indirect contact with the patient’s faeces.

Shigellosis, like typhoid and cholera, is a very uncommon infection.

Types –

There are four types of Shigella bacteria that affect humans – Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. dysenteriae.

  • Because of the poison it releases, the fourth variety causes the most severe sickness.
  • However, people seldom die from the infection unless it is severe.
  • The patient’s immune system is weakened or
  • The pathogen is resistant to drugs prescribed by doctors or
  • Shigella outbreaks tend to be more common among pregnant women and children under the age of five.
Treatment –

 Shigellosis is a very treatable condition; if a patient reaches hospital on time they can effectively be treated using IV antibiotics.

The problem though, occurs when the antibiotics do not work because the bacteria are resistant to it.

Problem – If the bacteria continue to proliferate in the body even after giving the antibiotics, it will continue to produce toxins that can affect all other organs.

These toxins can then affect the kidney, cause seizures, lead to multi-organ failure, and shock, and even turn fatal.

The mortality of the infection is less than 1%.

Precautions –

 The measures to prevent a Shigella infection are the same as that of any other food- and water-borne infection – be hygienic.

Products such as milk, chicken, and fish can get infected easily and must be kept at a proper temperature. They must also be properly cooked

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