Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 07 Jan 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

07 Jan 2022-Friday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Keeping the Internet of Things safe

Why in the News?

  • To help protect Consumer Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the Telecommunication Engineering Centre (TEC), which is part of the Ministry of Communications Department of Telecommunications, has published a study titled “Code of Practice for Securing Consumer Internet of Things (IoT) Devices.”
  • These rules will aid in the security and management of consumer IoT devices and ecosystems.

The Internet of Things (IoT):

  • It is a computer term that refers to the notion of ordinary physical items being linked to the internet and able to communicate with other devices.
  • It is one of the world’s fastest-growing technologies, offering huge benefits to society, businesses, and consumers.
  • It is being used to develop smart infrastructure across a variety of sectors, including power, automotive, safety and surveillance, remote health management, agriculture, smart homes, and smart cities.
  • A smart device is a context-aware electronic gadget capable of autonomous processing and data interchange through wired or wireless connections to other devices.
  • The Internet of Things benefits from recent advancements in a variety of technologies, including sensors, communication technologies (cellular and non-cellular), artificial intelligence/machine learning, cloud/edge computing, and so on.
  • By 2025, it is estimated that there will be around 11.4 billion consumer IoT devices and 13.3 billion commercial IoT devices worldwide, implying that consumer IoT devices will account for almost 46% of all IoT devices.
  • According to Markets, the worldwide Internet of Things security industry is predicted to increase from USD 8.2 billion in 2018 to USD 35.2 billion in 2023.

Need For Guidelines:

  • Projected Rise: With the anticipated growth of IoT devices, it is critical that IoT endpoints adhere to safety and security requirements.
  • Hacking into everyday devices/networks would be detrimental to businesses, organizations, governments, and most importantly, individuals.
  • There is rising worry in this data-driven future about the possibility of greater government monitoring and the ensuing erosion of civil liberties, as well as the repression of dissent or marginalized populations.
  • Consequences of Cyber Security attacks may result in the following:
  • Disruption and suspension of essential services or infrastructure.
  • Invasion of privacy.
  • Loss of life, property, health, and relationships, among other things.
  • National-scale disruptions, including civil upheaval.

 

Guidelines for securing consumer IoT:

  • No Universal Default Passwords
  • Implement a means to manage reports of vulnerabilities
  • Keep software updated
  • Securely store sensitive security parameters.
  • Communicate securely
  • Minimise exposed attack surfaces
  • Ensure that personal data is secure
  • Make systems resilient to outages

Aquamation of Desmond Tutu

Why in News:

  • Desmond Tutu, the Nobel Peace Prize-winning Anglican clergyman, and the anti-apartheid fighter had his corpse acquainted.
  • Aquamation, also known as water cremation, green cremation, chemical cremation, or alkaline hydrolysis, is a “flameless cremation” procedure that uses water instead of fire.

About:

  • Aquamation is a technique in which the corpse of the dead is submerged for 3 to 4 hours in a pressured metal cylinder filled with a combination of water (95%) and a strong alkali (5%) and heated to roughly 150 degrees Celsius.
  • In this process, the combination of moderate water flow, temperature, and alkalinity enhance the decomposition of organic molecules.
  • The decomposition that takes place during alkaline hydrolysis is the same as that which has a place during burial, but it is accelerated drastically by the chemicals.
  • The procedure liquefies everything, leaving just bones and effluent, a neutral liquid.
  • After that, the bones are dried and reduced to white dust.
  • Salts, sugars, amino acids, and peptides are found in the effluent, which is sterile. After the procedure is finished, there is no tissue or DNA remaining.
  • This effluent is dumped with the rest of the wastewater and is a beneficial addition to the water systems.
  • Amos Herbert Hanson, a farmer who was attempting to create an imaginative technique to manufacture fertilizer from animal corpses, devised and patented the Aquamation process in 1888.
  • In 1993, Albany Medical College deployed the first commercial system. Following that, hospitals and colleges with donated body programs continued to employ the method.
  • The process of Aquamation consumes 5 times less energy than fire.
  • It also cuts down on the number of greenhouse gases released during cremation by roughly 35%.
  • Because it consumes substantially less fuel and has a smaller total carbon footprint than typical cremation procedures, the process provides a greener alternative to standard cremation processes.
  • In 2019, South Africa became the first country to implement aquamation. Only a few nations have legalized it.

Wintering Grounds

Why in News:

  • Chilika Lake attracts over 10.74 lakh birds, including the rare Mongolian gull.

About:

  • After the summer breeding season has ended, migratory birds migrate to their wintering grounds.
  • It is the location where a migratory animal spends the time of year when it is not breeding and rearing young.
  • Pulicat Lake (Tamil Nadu/Andhra Pradesh), Nelapattu (Andhra Pradesh), Kumarakom (Kerala), Ranganathittu (Karnataka), Bharatpur (Rajasthan), Desert National Park (Rajasthan), Nal Sarovar &Rann of Kutch (Gujarat), Bhigwan Bird Sanctuary (Maharashtra), Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary (Arunachal Pradesh).
  • Chilika Lake is the biggest brackish water lake in the Indian subcontinent, as well as the greatest bird wintering grounds.
  • Birds migrate to Chilika Lake from the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, the Aral Sea, distant sections of Russia, Mongolia’s Kirghiz steppes, Central and Southeast Asia, Ladakh, and the Himalayas.
  • According to the Water Bird Status Survey-2022, a total of 10,74,173 birds representing 107 different water bird species and 37,953 individuals representing 76 different wetland dependent species were tallied over the whole lagoon in Chilika.

Language of Courts in India

Why in News:

A Gujarat High Court Division Bench has ordered a journalist charged with contempt of court to talk solely in English since it is the language of the higher courts.

About:

  • There is a provision in the High Court that any party who does not engage a lawyer and attends in person must talk solely in English.
  • The Court further emphasized that Article 348 of the Constitution required that the High Court’s language be English.
  • Article 348 (1) of the Indian Constitution states that unless Parliament passes legislation to the contrary, all hearings in the Supreme Court and all High Courts must be conducted in English.
  • However, under Article 348 (2), the Governor of the State may approve the use of Hindi or another official language of the State in High Court proceedings with the President’s assent, provided that all decrees, judgments, and orders issued by such Courts are in English.
  • The use of Hindi or the official language of a state in addition to English may be permitted in the High Court for that state under Section 7 of the Official Languages Act, 1963.
  • This authorization may be granted by the Governor of the State with the assent of the President of India for the purposes of judgments and other actions taken by the High Court for that State.
  • The High Courts of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Bihar have already created provisions for the use of Hindi in proceedings as an alternative.

Loans from the SDF are being restructured

Why in News:

  • Under Rule 26 of the SDF Rules 1983, the Department of Food and Public Distribution released rules for restructuring Sugar Development Fund (SDF) loans.

About:

  • The purpose of these rules is to make it easier to rehabilitate financially distressed but economically viable sugar mills that have taken out loans under the Sugar Development Fund Act of 1982.
  • These rules apply to all forms of SDF loans, including those taken by Co-operative Societies, Private Limited Companies, and Public Limited Companies.
  • The Guidelines provide for a two-year moratorium before repaying the SDF loans over a five-year period.
  • The qualified sugar factories will get a complete waiver of extra interest.

Eligibility criteria –

  • The sugar factories listed below are eligible to apply for re-structuring:
  • A sugar plant that has been losing money for the last three years or
  • The sugar plant has a negative net value, and
  • The sugar plant has not been closed for more than two sugar seasons, except the current sugar season, and has not stopped crushing cane.

Reovirus:

Why in News:

  • Andhra Pradesh has discovered that ‘Mud Crab Reovirus (MCRV)’ was the cause of the enormous death of wild crabs (Scylla Serrata).

About:

  • Mud Crab Reovirus is a member of the “Reoviridae” family of viruses. It is to blame for the catastrophic extinction of wild crabs. The virus primarily attacks connective tissue in the hepatopancreas, gut, and gills.
  • Reoviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses.
  • It is sometimes referred to as Sleeping Disease.
  • It mostly affects the hepatopancreas, gills, and intestine’s connective tissue.

3.0 NEAT:

Why in News:

  • The Union Education Minister recently established the National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) 3.0.

About:

  • NEAT was launched by the Ministry of Education as a Public-Private Partnership model between the government (through its implementing body AICTE) and Education Technology firms across India.
  • It is an effort to enable the utilization of best-developed technology solutions in the education sector to improve youth employability on a single platform for the convenience of learners.
  • These solutions use artificial intelligence to provide a personalized and customized learning experience in order to improve learning outcomes and skill development in certain areas.

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