Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 09 May 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

09 May 2022-Monday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

National NFHS-5 Report

Why is this newsworthy?

The National Report of the Second Phase of the Fifth Round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) was just published.

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a multi-round, large-scale survey that is undertaken in a representative sample of Indian households.

What is the purpose of the NFHS-5 Report?

It contains detailed data on key domains of population, health, and family welfare, as well as related domains such as population characteristics, fertility, family planning, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, nutrition and anaemia, morbidity and healthcare, women’s empowerment, and so on.

In comparison to the previous round of the survey (NFHS-4), the scope of NFHS-5 has been enlarged by include new aspects such as:

Death registration, pre-school education, expanded domains of child immunisation, micronutrient components for children, menstrual hygiene, frequency of alcohol and tobacco use, additional components of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), and an expanded age range for measuring hypertension and diabetes among all those aged 15 and up

As a result, NFHS-5 provides data on key indicators that can be used to track the country’s progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The national report also includes statistics broken down by socioeconomic and other factors that are useful for policy formation and programme implementation.

The NFHS-5 National Report details the transition from NFHS-4 (2015-16) to NFHS-5 (2017-18). (2019-21).

The fundamental goal of the NFHS in subsequent rounds has been to produce trustworthy and comparative data on health and family welfare, as well as other growing sectors in India.

What are the NFHS-5 National Report’s Key Highlights?

TFR (Total Fertility Rate):
Overall:

Between NNFHS 4 and 5, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) at the national level fell from 2.2 to 2.0.

Only five states in India have fertility levels above the replacement level of 2.1. Bihar, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Manipur are the states in question.

The total fertility rate—the average number of children born per woman—at which a population exactly replaces itself from generation to generation without migration is known as replacement level fertility.

Bihar and Meghalaya have the highest fertility rates in the country, while Sikkim and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands have the lowest fertility rates.

TFR has dropped from 3.7 children per woman in 1992-93 to 2.1 children in 2019-21 in rural areas.

Women in urban areas had fewer children, dropping from 2.7 children in 1992-93 to 1.6 children in 2019-21.

Muslim fertility rates have fallen the most sharply among all religious communities during the last two decades.

Overall, the number of minor marriages has decreased in the United States.

According to NFHS-5, 23.3 percent of women questioned married before reaching the legal age of 18 years, a decrease from 26.8% in NFHS-4.

Underage marriage occurs in 17.7% of men (NFHS-5) and 20.3 percent of women (NFHS-4).

Maximum Surge:

In Punjab, West Bengal, Manipur, Tripura, and Assam, the rate has risen.

Women’s weddings increased the most in Tripura, from 33.1 percent (NHFS-4) to 40.1 percent, and men’s marriages increased the most, from 16.2 percent to 20.4 percent.

West Bengal, along with Bihar, continues to have one of the highest rates of underage marriages.

J&K, Lakshadweep, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Goa, Nagaland, Kerala, Puducherry, and Tamil Nadu have the lowest rate of underage marriages.

Teenage Pregnancies:

Teenage pregnancies have decreased from 7.9% to 6.8%.

Contraceptive Methods Used:

Factor of employment: 66.3 percent of employed women use a modern contraceptive technique, compared to 53.4 percent of unemployed women.

Contraception use rises in communities and regions where socioeconomic development has been made.

Income Factor:

The “unmet need for family planning methods” is highest (11.4 percent) among the poorest quintile and lowest among the richest quintile (8.6 percent ).

Modern contraceptives are used by 50.7 percent of women in the lowest wealth quintile and 58.7% of women in the highest wealth quintile.

Overall, domestic violence against women has decreased slightly from 31.2 percent in 2015-16 to 29.3 percent in 2019-21.

Domestic violence against women is most prevalent in Karnataka, at 48 percent, followed by Bihar, Telangana, Manipur, and Tamil Nadu.

At 2.1 percent, Lakshadweep has the lowest rate of domestic violence.

Overall, India’s institutional birth rate climbed from 79 percent to 89 percent.

In rural areas, roughly 87 percent of births are delivered in institutions, while in metropolitan areas, the figure is 94 percent.

Immunization Level: More over three-quarters of children aged 12-23 months (77%) were fully immunised, compared to 62% in NFHS-4.

Stunting:

In the last four years, the country’s stunting rate has dropped from 38 percent to 36 percent among children under the age of five.

In 2019-21, stunting is more common among children in rural areas (37%) than in urban areas (30%).

Obesity:

In most States/UTs, the prevalence of overweight or obesity has grown in NFHS-5 compared to NFHS-4.

It grew from 21% to 24% among women and 19% to 23% among men at the national level.

SDG Goal: NFHS-5 reveals that indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals have improved across the board in all states and union territories (UTs).

Married women typically participate in three family decisions, indicating that their decision-making participation is strong.

Health care for herself, big household purchases, and visits to her family or relatives are all examples of household decisions.

In Ladakh, 80 percent of people participate in decision-making, while Nagaland and Mizoram have 99 percent.

The differences between rural (77%) and urban (81%) are determined to be minor.

In the last four years, the percentage of women who have a bank or savings account has climbed from 53% to 79 percent.

International Disaster Resilient Infrastructure Conference

Why is this newsworthy?

The Prime Minister delivered a video message to the opening session of the fourth edition of the International Conference on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure.

The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) holds an annual international conference in conjunction with member governments, organisations, and institutions to strengthen the global discourse on disaster and climate resilient infrastructure.

What exactly is CDRI?

National governments, UN (United Nations) agencies and programmes, multilateral development banks and finance mechanisms, the business sector, and knowledge institutes make up the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).

On September 23, 2019, India’s Prime Minister announced CDRI during his speech at the United Nations Climate Action Summit.

In order to assist sustainable development, it tries to increase the resilience of new and existing infrastructure systems to climate and disaster hazards.

30 countries and 8 organisations are members.

Governance and policy, risk identification and estimation, standards and certification, capacity building, innovation and emerging technology, recovery and reconstruction, finance, and community-based initiatives are among the the thematic areas covered.

New Delhi, India is home to the CDRI Secretariat.

What is the difference between Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (DRI) and Climate Resilient Infrastructure (CRI)?

Disaster risk from geophysical and geomorphological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and volcanic activity is also addressed by DRI. DRI must handle risks arising from such low-frequency high-impact events because infrastructure systems are designed for long life cycles.

DRI must cope with non-climate-related technology dangers such as nuclear radiation, dam failures, chemical spills, and explosions.

Weather and climate-related catastrophic events are responsible for more than 90% of disasters. As a result, building infrastructure climate resilient also helps it to be disaster resilient.

Some CRI activities may be aimed at lowering infrastructure’s carbon impact. While this may be an unintended consequence of DRI, it is not addressed openly.

What is the purpose of CDRI?

The Sendai Framework for Catastrophe Risk Reduction (SFDRR) emphasises the importance of increased infrastructure disaster resilience as a cornerstone for long-term development.

Reduce global disaster mortality, reduce the number of people affected by disasters, reduce direct disaster economic loss, and reduce catastrophe damage to essential infrastructure are all aims in the SFDRR.

Target (4) on infrastructure is a necessary precondition for meeting the framework’s other loss reduction goals.

The global annual infrastructure investment needs are anticipated to be USD 3.7 trillion per year between 2016 and 2040.

As a result, there is a compelling justification for ensuring that all future infrastructure systems be disaster-resistant to protect our investments.

The CDRI programme is focusing on the issues that island states face as a result of climate change.

At COP-26, an initiative called “Infrastructure for Resilient Island States” was created.

What is the Infrastructure for Resilient Island States Initiative?

As part of the CDRI, India created this programme, which will focus on capacity building and pilot initiatives, particularly in small island developing states.

SIDS, or small island developing states, are the most vulnerable to climate change. India’s space agency, ISRO, will create a dedicated data window for them to deliver fast information about cyclones, coral reef monitoring, coast-line monitoring, and other issues through satellite.

What does this mean for India?

Provide India with a platform to become a worldwide leader in climate action and disaster preparedness.

CDRI improves India’s soft power, but it has a broader meaning than merely economics, as the synergy between disaster risk reduction, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the Climate Accord ensures long-term, equitable growth.

Add to the International Solar Alliance (ISA).

Aid India’s support for resilient infrastructure in Africa, Asia, and other parts of the world.

Infrastructure developers should have access to information, technology, and capacity development.

Make it easier for Indian infrastructure and technology companies to spread their services internationally.

Plants for Tissue Culture

Why is this newsworthy?

The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) recently hosted a webinar with Department of Biotechnology (DBT) accredited tissue culture laboratories across India on “Export Promotion of Tissue Culture Plants” such as Foliage, Live Plants, Cut Flowers, and Planting Material.”

The goal is to increase tissue culture plant exports.

Tissue Culture: What Is It?

In an appropriate growth medium, it is the generation of new plants from a small piece of plant tissue or cells cut from a plant’s growing tips.

The growth medium, also known as culture solution, is critical in this procedure since it contains numerous plant nutrients in the form of ‘jelly’ known as agar, as well as plant hormones that are required for plant growth.

What Applications Does Plant Tissue Culture Have?

  • To investigate plant respiration and metabolism.
  • For the evaluation of plant organ functioning.
  • To research and develop ways for eradicating various plant diseases.
  • Genetic, morphological, and pathological research can all benefit from single cell clones.
  • Embryonic cell suspensions can be utilised to propagate clones on a vast scale.
  • Somatic embryos derived from cell suspensions can be kept in germplasm banks for a long time.
  • Somaclonal variants are the result of the generation of variant clones with new properties.
  • Production of haploids (plants with only one set of chromosomes) for crop improvement.
  • Mutant cells can be picked out of cultures and used to improve crops.
  • Embryo rescue is the technique of culturing immature embryos in vitro to produce hybrids.

What Does Tissue Culture Mean in India?

India is endowed with expertise, biotech professionals with extensive tissue culture experience, and a low-cost labour force to assist in the production of high-quality planting material for export.

All of these criteria position India as a prospective global provider of a broad and diverse range of high-quality flora to the global market, allowing it to earn foreign currency.

The APEDA Financial Assistance Scheme (FAS) aims to assist laboratories in upgrading their facilities so that they can produce export-quality tissue culture planting material.

It also supports the export of tissue culture planting material to a variety of countries by promoting and exhibiting tissue culture plants at international exhibitions, as well as engaging in buyer-seller meetings at various international forums.

The Netherlands, the United States, Italy, Australia, Canada, Japan, Kenya, Senegal, Ethiopia, and Nepal are the top ten countries importing tissue culture plants from India.

India’s tissue culture plant exports totaled USD17.17 million in 2020-2021, with the Netherlands accounting for over half of the shipments.

What Challenges Do Tissue Culture Exporters Face in India?

  • Increasing energy prices
  • In the laboratories, the skilled personnel is inefficient.
  • Issues with laboratory contamination
  • Transporting micro-propagated planting material costs money.
  • The HS code of Indian planting material does not match that of other countries.
  • Forest and quarantine departments have raised concerns.

Other’s News

Pension Administration System (Raksha)

The Ministry of Defence (MoD) recently launched a system called System for Pension Administration (Raksha) (SPARSH) that allows retirees to receive their payments directly.

SPARSH is used to address the needs of the Armed Forces, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defence Civilians, in terms of pension sanction and payout.

This web-based system handles pension claims and deposits funds directly into the bank accounts of defence retirees, eliminating the need for a third party.

All banks that function as Pension Disbursing Agencies often receive pension payments from retirees.

All aspects of the pension cycle would be covered by the system, including Initiation and Sanction, Disbursement, Revision, and Service and Grievance Request Management.

PM MITRA Parks Program

The Ministry of Textiles hosted a national conference on the PM MITRA Parks Scheme.

The Ministry of Textiles manages the PM Mega Integrated Textile Regions and Apparel Park (PM MITRA) Parks Scheme.

The PM MITRA Parks are intended to assist India in meeting UN Sustainable Development Goal 9: “Build resilient infrastructure, encourage sustainable industrialisation, and foster innovation.”

These parks will be equipped with world-class industrial infrastructure, attracting cutting-edge technology and boosting FDI and local investment in the textiles industry.

The Prime Minister’s 5F vision – Farm to Fibre to Factory to Fashion to Foreign – inspired the PM MITRA initiative.

PM MITRA Parks will provide the possibility to develop an integrated textiles value chain from spinning to weaving, processing/dyeing, printing, and garment production all in one site.

It is expected that each park will generate 1 lakh direct jobs and 2 lakh indirect jobs.

A Challenge Method will be used to select sites for PM MITRA Parks based on objective criteria.

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