Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 11 Jan 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

11 Jan 2022-Tuesday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

The Citizenship (Amendment) Act rules:

Context:

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has missed the third extended deadline for notifying the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 rules.
  • The deadline for submitting the rules to the two parliamentary committees in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha expired on January 9.

What is the current situation?

  • The Act cannot be executed without rules.

Background:

  • Parliament enacted the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) on December 11, 2019, and the Act was announced within 24 hours on December 12. The Ministry said in January 2020 that the Act would take effect on January 10, 2020.It proposes to amend the 1955 Citizenship Act.
  • The 1955 Citizenship Act offers a variety of ways for acquiring citizenship.
  • It establishes citizenship by birth, descent, registration, naturalisation, and annexation of the area.
  • The CAA’s purpose is to offer Indian citizenship to persecuted minorities (Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist, Parsi, and Christian) in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan.
  • Individuals from these groups who entered India before December 31, 2014, in order to escape religious persecution in their home countries would not be classified as illegal immigrants but will be granted Indian citizenship.
  • The Act authorises the central government to terminate OCI registrations for certain grounds.

Exceptions:

  • The Act does not apply to tribal territories of Tripura, Mizoram, Assam, and Meghalaya due to their inclusion in the Constitution’s 6th Schedule.
  • Additionally, regions that fall under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873’s Inner line shall be excluded from the Act’s scope.

Law-related issues:

  • It breaches the Constitution’s fundamental principles. Illegal immigrants are classified according to their faith.
  • It is seen as a danger to indigenous communities’ demographics.
  • It provides citizenship to illegal migrants on the basis of their faith. This may be a violation of Article 14, which ensures the right to equality.
  • It seeks to naturalise illegal immigrants in the area.
  • It provides for the revocation of OCI registration in the event of a breach of any legislation. This is a broad category that encompasses a variety of offences, including minor infractions.

Futures on Gold and Silver

Why in News:

  • Gold and silver futures on the Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) began at a little discount to their previous closes.

About Futures:

  • A precious metals futures contract is a legally enforceable commitment for the future delivery of gold or silver at a certain price.
  • Gold and silver futures contracts may be used as a hedge against inflation and as a commercial hedge for investors looking for alternatives to standard equities and fixed income instruments.
  • A futures market standardises contracts in terms of quantity, quality, delivery date, and location. The only variation is the price.
  • You do not need to own real metal to trade futures, and you may leverage your buying power.
  • Hedgers utilise these contracts to hedge against price risk associated with an anticipated purchase or sale of real metal.
  • Holding futures incurs no management costs, as ETFs or mutual funds do, and taxes on capital gains are divided between short- and long-term profits.

National AIDS Control Organisation

Why in News:

  • According to a lawyer, the NACO is facing significant delays in implementing WHO standards for diagnosing and treating severe HIV illness.

About:

  • In 1992, after the first AIDS case in India (1986), the first national AIDS control programme was initiated in 1992-1999.
  • The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) was formed to oversee the program’s implementation.
  • NACO serves as the primary organisation responsible for developing policy and executing interventions aimed at preventing and controlling HIV in India.
  • NACO is a ministry of health and family welfare agency.
  • Components include prevention; information, education, and communication; testing; treatment; laboratory services; mainstreaming and collaboration; and social protection (SI).
  • The National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) is a fully financed Central Sector Scheme that is implemented in States/Union Territories via State/UT AIDS Control Societies (SACS) (UTs).
  • It is actively monitored in 188 high-priority districts by the District AIDS prevention and control unit (DAPCU).
  • NACP-IV (extension) is now being implemented for the period 2017-20.

Green Energy Corridor (GEC) Phase-II

Why in News:

  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has authorised the Green Energy Corridor Phase-II concept for the Intra-State Transmission System (InSTS).

About:

  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s Green Energy Corridor Project intends to synchronise energy generated by renewable sources (solar and wind) with conventional power plants on the grid.
  • The Ministry sanctioned the Intra State Transmission System (InSTS) project in 2015-16 to facilitate the evacuation of large-scale renewable energy.
  • Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh are implementing it.
  • In these states, the project is being executed by the respective State Transmission Utilities (STUs) via a competitive bidding procedure.
  • The financing structure comprises a 40% grant from the Government of India, 20% state equity, and 40% loan from KfW, Germany (500 million EUR).
  • The Central funding is distributed to STUs in two instalments:
  • 70% advance on the contract award, and
  • 30% after commissioning and three months of performance testing.

SKOCH Awards

Why in News:

  • Mission Parvarish, a programme aimed at eradicating malnutrition among children aged six months to five years, has won the SKOCH Award for southern Assam’s Cachar district.

About:

  • The project was introduced in 2020 during “nutrition month.”
  • The initiative used a coordinated socioeconomic approach to malnourished children from low-income homes.
  • Government agencies, local civic organisations, non-governmental organisations, and corporate leaders had banded together to give nutritional assistance to such youngsters.

About the Award:

  • SKOCH Award, established in 2003, honours individuals, programmes, and organisations that go above and beyond to make India a better country.
  • The ‘Skoch Group’ presents the award in recognition of outstanding achievements in digital, financial, and social inclusion.
  • It is presented in the areas of digital, financial, and social inclusion; governance; inclusive growth; excellence in technology and applications; change management; corporate leadership; corporate governance; citizen service delivery; capacity development; and empowerment, among others.

The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

Context:

  • Urjit Patel, a former governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), has been named vice president of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in Beijing (AIIB).
  • Mr Patel will serve as one of the multilateral development bank’s five vice presidents for a three-year tenure.

What exactly is AIIB?

  • The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is an international development bank with the purpose to enhance Asia’s social and economic results.
  • The Agreement’s Parties (57 original members) constitute the Bank’s Membership.
  • Its headquarters is situated in Beijing.
  • The bank began operations on 25 December 2015, after ratifications by ten member nations holding a combined 50% of the original subscriptions to the Authorized Capital Stock.

Aim:

  • By investing in sustainable infrastructure and other productive sectors today, it hopes to link people, services, and markets, so improving the lives of billions and laying the groundwork for a brighter future.

Membership:

  • There are already over 100 members.

Right to vote:

  • China is the bank’s biggest shareholder, with a voting stake of 26.61 percent, followed by India (7.6 percent), Russia (6.01 percent), and Germany (4.2 percent).
  • Regional members control 75% of the Bank’s overall voting power.

AIIB’s several organs include the following:

  • Board of Governors:
  • Each member nation appoints one Governor and one Alternate Governor to the Board of Governors.
  • Governors and Alternate Governors are appointed by the appointing member and serve at the pleasure of the appointing member.
  • Board of Directors:
  • The Bank’s general operations are directed by a non-resident Board of Directors, which exercises all powers given to it by the Board of Governors.
  • The Bank has formed an International Advisory Panel (IAP) to advise the President and Senior Management on the Bank’s plans and objectives, as well as on basic operational matters.

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