Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 12 Apr 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

12 Apr 2022-Tuesday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Index of State Energy and Climate

Why in the news?

The NITI Aayog recently launched the State Energy and Climate Index (SECI). It is the first index to track states’ and UTs’ efforts in the climate and energy sectors.

The index’s parameters were developed with India’s climate change and clean energy transition goals in mind.

What are the SECI’s main points?

The index’s goals are to rank states based on their efforts to improve energy access, energy consumption, energy efficiency, and environmental protection.

Advancing the agenda of affordable, accessible, efficient, and clean energy transitions at the state level; encouraging healthy competition among states on various dimensions of energy and climate.

Parameters: The State Energy and Climate Index (SECI) ranks states and UTs based on six criteria: Discoms’ (Power distribution companies’) performance, Energy Access, Affordability, and Reliability, Clean Energy Initiatives, Energy Efficiency, Environmental Sustainability, and New Initiatives.

Categorization:

States and union territories have been divided into three groups based on their SECI scores: front runners, achievers, and aspirants.

Top Performers: According to the NITI Aayog’s SECI, Gujarat, Kerala, and Punjab are the top three performer states.

Goa, Tripura, and Manipur are the top three performers among smaller states.

Unsatisfactory Performance: States such as Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Jharkhand were ranked last.

India is a resource-rich and diverse country with many needs. In terms of area, population, and resource diversity, many of its states are comparable to countries in the European Union.

As a result, a one-size-fits-all approach will be ineffective because each state and Union Territory (UT) differs in terms of culture, geography, and energy resource use.

Each state and UT must have their own policy in order to maximise their potential and capability.

What are India’s commitments to climate change?

At the COP-26 Glasgow summit, India’s Prime Minister, Panchamrit, presented five nectar elements to deal with climate change:

India’s non-fossil installed electricity capacity will reach 500 GW by 2030.

By 2030, India will have met 50% of its electricity needs with renewable energy.

From now until 2030, India will reduce total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes.

By 2030, India’s economy will have reduced its carbon intensity by less than 45 percent.

By the year 2070, India will have achieved the Net-zero goal.

Adoption of Children in India

Why in the news?

The Supreme Court recently agreed to hear a petition seeking to simplify the legal process for child adoption in India.

Adoption (First Amendment) Regulations, 2021 were notified in 2021, allowing Indian diplomatic missions abroad to be in charge of protecting adopted children whose parents move overseas with the child within two years of adoption.

What are the Problems with Child Adoption in India?

Statistics on the decline and institutional apathy:

There is a significant gap between adoptable children and prospective parents, which may lengthen the adoption process.

According to data, while over 29,000 prospective parents are willing to adopt, there are only 2,317 children available for adoption.

Adoptees Returning Children After Adoption:

The Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) experienced an unusual increase in adoptive parents returning children after adoption between 2017 and 2019.

The Ministry of Women and Child Development established the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) as a statutory body. It serves as the nodal body for Indian child adoption and is responsible for monitoring and regulating both in-country and inter-country adoptions.

According to the data, 60% of all children returned were girls, 24% were special needs children, and many were older than six.

The primary cause of these’disruptions’ is that disabled and older children take much longer to adjust to their adoptive families.

This is primarily due to the difficulty older children have adjusting to a new environment because institutions do not prepare or counsel children about living with a new family.

Adoption and Disability:

Only 40 children with disabilities were adopted between 2018 and 2019, accounting for about 1% of all children adopted in the year.

Domestic adoptions of children with special needs are declining year after year, according to annual trends.

Manufactured Orphans and Child Trafficking: In 2018, Ranchi’s Mother Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity were chastised for their “baby-selling racket” after a nun from the shelter admitted to selling four children.

Similar incidents are becoming more common as the pool of available children for adoption shrinks and waitlisted parents become impatient.

During the pandemic, there was also a threat of child trafficking and illegal adoption rackets.

Children are typically sourced from poor or marginalised families, and unwed mothers are coaxed or misled into submitting their children to trafficking organisations.

LGBTQ+ Parenthood and Reproductive Autonomy: Despite the constant evolution of the definition of a family, the ‘ideal’ Indian family nucleus still consists of a husband, wife, daughter(s), and son(s) (s).

What are the Adoption Laws in India?

The Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956 (HAMA) and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 govern adoption in India (JJ Act).

HAMA, 1956 is administered by the Ministry of Law and Justice, whereas the JJ Act, 2015 is administered by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.

Adoption is legal for Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs, according to government regulations.

The Guardians and Ward Act (GWA), 1980 was the only way for non-Hindu individuals to become guardians of children from their community prior to the JJ Act.

What are the Adoption Laws in India?

The Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956 (HAMA) and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 govern adoption in India (JJ Act).

HAMA, 1956 is administered by the Ministry of Law and Justice, whereas the JJ Act, 2015 is administered by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.

Adoption is legal for Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs, according to government regulations.

The Guardians and Ward Act (GWA), 1980 was the only way for non-Hindu individuals to become guardians of children from their community prior to the JJ Act.

However, because the GWA appoints individuals as legal guardians rather than natural parents, guardianship ends when the ward reaches the age of 21 and assumes individual identity.

The Way Forward

The Need to Prioritize Children’s Welfare: The primary goal of placing a child for adoption is to ensure his or her welfare and to restore his or her right to family.

CARA and the ministry must pay attention to the vulnerable and invisible community of children who suffer in our institutions in silence.

Institutional mandates must be strengthened:

The adoption ecosystem must shift from a parent-centric to a child-centric perspective.

Adopting an Inclusive Approach Is Required:

There is a need to adopt an inclusive approach that focuses on a child’s needs in order to foster an environment of acceptance, growth, and well-being, thereby recognising children as equal stakeholders in the adoption process.

Adoption Process Should Be Simplified: The adoption process should be simplified by reexamining the various regulations that govern the adoption procedure.

The ministry can consult with relevant experts in this field to get feedback on the practical challenges that prospective parents face.

Jyotirao Phule

Why in the news?

On the occasion of the birth anniversary of Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, the Prime Minister has paid tribute to him (11th April). Jyotiba Phule is another name for him.

Jyotirao Phule, who was he?

Profile in Brief:

Phule was born on April 11, 1827 in present-day Maharashtra to the Mali caste of gardeners and vegetable farmers.

Education:

Phule enrolled in the Scottish Missionary High School (Pune) in 1841, where he completed his education.

Ideology:

His ideology was based on the following principles: liberty, egalitarianism, and socialism.

Phule was influenced by Thomas Paine’s book The Rights of Man and believed that the only way to combat social evils was to educate women and lower caste members.

Tritiya Ratna (1855), Powada: Chatrapati Shivajiraje Bhosle Yancha (1869), Gulamgiri (1873), Shetkarayacha Aasud (1874). (1881).

Related Association:

In 1873, Phule and his followers founded Satyashodhak Samaj, which means “Seekers of Truth,” in order to achieve equal social and economic benefits for Maharashtra’s lower castes.

He was appointed as a commissioner to the Poona municipality and served in that capacity until 1883.

Mahatma:

 On May 11, 1888, a Maharashtrian social activist named Vithalrao Krishnaji Vandekar bestowed the title of Mahatma on him.

Social reformer:

In 1848, he taught his wife (Savitribai) to read and write, and the couple went on to establish the first indigenously run school for girls in Pune, where they both taught.

He believed in gender equality and demonstrated this by involving his wife in all of his social reform activities.

The Phules had established three schools by 1852, but all of them had closed by 1858 due to a lack of funds following the Revolt of 1857.

Jyotiba recognised the plight of widows and founded an ashram for young widows, eventually becoming an advocate for widow remarriage.

Jyotirao derisively referred to orthodox Brahmins and other upper castes as “hypocrites.”

Jyotirao built a common bathing tank outside his house in 1868 to demonstrate his embracing attitude toward all humans and his desire to dine with everyone, regardless of caste.

He began awareness campaigns that eventually inspired the likes of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi, stalwarts who later launched major anti-caste initiatives.

Many believe that it was Phule who coined the term “Dalit” to describe oppressed masses who were frequently depicted outside the “varna system.”

He campaigned for the abolition of untouchability and the caste system in Maharashtra.

Death date: November 28th, 1890. His memorial is located in Phule Wada, Maharashtra.

Other’s News

QS World University Rankings 2022

Quacquarelli Symonds recently published the QS World University Rankings 2022. (QS).

The QS World University Rankings, which began in 2004, is an annual publication of university rankings.

The university rankings for 2022 are the most comprehensive, featuring 1,300 universities from around the world.

Methodology – Each institution was evaluated using the six metrics listed below:

  • Academic Standing (40 percent )
  • Reputation of Employers (10 percent )
  • Student-to-Faculty Ratio (20 percent )
  • Faculty citations (20 percent )
  • Ratio of International Faculty (5 percent )
  • Ratio of International Students (5 percent )

This ranking can be used to compare universities easily by looking at their score, which ranges from 0 to 100.

Findings – The top rank holders in the 2022 ranking are Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA, University of Oxford, UK, and Stanford University, US.

IIT-Kharagpur was ranked 37th in mineral and mining engineering and 80th in electrical and electronic engineering globally in 2022.

Jadavpur University is India’s only state university to be ranked in the QS World University Rankings in the arts and humanities in 2022.

Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) was ranked ninth in the country for engineering and technology.

QS World University Subject Rankings 2022

The QS World University Rankings by Subject are published annually to assist prospective students in identifying top universities in a specific subject.

It encompasses a total of 51 disciplines organised into five broad subject areas.

In their subject categories, 16 Indian higher education institutes (with 35 programmes) were ranked among the top 100.

Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, with its Dentistry programme ranking 18th, and Indian School of Mines (ISM) University, Dhanbad, with its Mineral and Mining Engineering programme ranking 26th, had the best performance among Indian Institutes.

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