Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 14 May 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

14 May 2022-Saturday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Initiative BHARAT TAP

Why is this newsworthy?

At the recent ‘Plumbex India’ show, the Minister for Housing and Urban Affairs unveiled the BHARAT TAP programme. This show focuses on plumbing, water, and sanitation products and services.

The ‘Nirmal Jal Prayas’ initiative of NAREDCO (National Real Estate Development Council) MAHI was also introduced at the exhibition.

What is the BHARAT TAP Initiative, exactly?

The usage of low-flow faucets and fittings is an idea.

It will deliver low-flow sanitary ware on a large scale, significantly reducing water usage at the source.

It is predicted that it will save about 40% of water. As a result, less water and energy will be required for pumping, transporting, and purification, resulting in water and energy savings.

This campaign will be well received across the country, resulting in a renewed emphasis on water conservation activities.

What does NAREDCO MAHI stand for?

It aims to contribute to the resolution of the worldwide water crisis by reducing the financial hurdles that prevent people in need from having access to safe drinking water and sanitation at home.

Nirmal Jal Prayas’ programme will map ground water since it is critical to conserve underground water, and it will aim to preserve 500 million litres of water every year.

NAREDCO’s women’s wing was founded in 2021 with the goal of empowering women entrepreneurs and encouraging their participation in the real estate industry and related disciplines.

It aspires to establish an atmosphere where women in the real estate industry can join together to exchange experiences, pool their resources, influence, learn, and effect long-term change.

This type of water conservation project will be critical in saving water.

What is the Importance of Water Conservation?

Increased Demand: With limited surface water resources, there is an increased demand for water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural purposes.

Limited Storage: Due to the hard rock terrain and the extra disadvantage of a lack of rainfall, especially in central Indian states, storage facilities are limited.

Over-extraction of groundwater: The Green Revolution allowed water-intensive crops to be cultivated in drought-prone/water-scarce areas, resulting in groundwater over-extraction.

Pumping water from the ground on a regular basis without waiting for it to recharge causes rapid depletion.

Water contamination, such as that caused by landfills, septic tanks, leaking underground gas tanks, and the overuse of fertilisers and pesticides, causes groundwater resources to be damaged and depleted.

Inadequate Groundwater Regulation: Inadequate groundwater regulation supports the unrestricted use of groundwater resources.

Deforestation and Unscientific Agriculture: Deforestation, unscientific agricultural methods, chemical effluents from industries, and a lack of sanitation all contribute to groundwater pollution, rendering it unusable.

What are the other Water Conservation Initiatives?

Mission Swachh Bharat:

SBM is a demand-centric paradigm, as opposed to the construction or supply-led programmes of the past (Central Rural Sanitation Programme). It focuses on behaviour change in the rural population to build demand for sanitation services, which is subsequently met by supply.

AMRUT stands for Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Transformation.

The goal of this project is to make sure that every home has a tap with a reliable supply of water and a sewer connection.

To ensure that every residence has access to a water tap with a reliable supply and a sewer connection.

AMRUT 2.0:

AMRUT 2.0 intends to offer 100% water coverage to all families in approximately 4,700 ULBs (Urban Local Bodies).

It also aims to promote Atmanirbhar Bharat by promoting entrepreneurs and startups (Public Private Partnership).

NAQUIM stands for National Aquifer Mapping and Management Program.

It calls for the mapping of aquifers (water-bearing formations), their characterisation, and the creation of Aquifer Management Plans to help with long-term groundwater management.

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act aims to promote groundwater harvesting, create water conservation and storage technologies, and allows the government to include water conservation as a project.

Jal Kranti Abhiyan: 

Efforts to revolutionise communities and towns through water conservation programmes at the block level.

For example, the Jal Gram Scheme under it attempted to build two model villages for water conservation and preservation in water-scarce locations.

Through integrated water resource development and management, the National Water Mission aims to save water, reduce waste, and ensure more fair distribution across and within states.

The Composite Water Management Index of the NITI Aayog aims to ensure effective water utilisation.

Jal Shakti Ministry and Jal Jeevan Mission were established to address water concerns comprehensively.

By 2024, the Jal Jeevan project hopes to give piped water to every rural family.

Atal Bhujal Yojana: 

A central-sector initiative for long-term groundwater management with community participation, including the formation of Water User Associations, water budgeting, and the development and execution of Gram-panchayat-level water security plans, among other things.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan: 

A national programme for water conservation and security launched in July 2019.

National Water Awards: 

Organized by the Ministry of Jal Shakti’s Department of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation.

Focus on individual and organisational initiatives across the country, as well as the government’s aim for the path to Jal Samridh Bharat.

Sagittarius A*: The Milky Way's Black Hole

Why is this newsworthy?

Scientists from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) facility just released the first photograph of Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way.

Almost all galaxies have these massive black holes at their centres, where light and matter cannot escape, making photographs of them extremely difficult.

The black hole has been dubbed “the gentle giant at the heart of our galaxy” by scientists.

What does the image of a black hole reveal?

This photograph of the Sagittarius A* (Sagittarius A(asterisk)) black hole added to the evidence that the compact object at the centre of our galaxy is really a black hole.

It is located near the constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpius. Its mass is 4 million times that of our sun.

It supports Einstein’s general theory of relativity that there is a point in space where matter is compressed to the point where even light cannot escape.

Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, was significantly more difficult to image than M87, according to the researchers.

The Event Horizon Telescope made history in 2019 when it released the first photograph of a black hole, Messier 87 (M87), which is the black hole at the centre of the supergiant elliptic galaxy M87.

What exactly are Black Holes?

Albert Einstein proposed the notion in 1915, while American scientist John Archibald Wheeler developed the phrase “black hole” in the mid-1960s.

Typically, black holes fall into one of two categories:

Several solar masses to tens of solar masses fall into one category. When huge stars die, they are hypothesised to develop.

The supermassive black hole category is the other. These range in size from tens of thousands to billions of times the size of the sun in the Solar system to which Earth belongs.

The Event Horizon Telescope Project scientists revealed the first-ever photograph of a Black Hole in April 2019. (more precisely, of its shadow).

When two black holes orbit one other and combine, gravitational waves are produced.

Galaxy

A galaxy is a massive clump of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems held together by gravity.

The Milky Way Galaxy includes Earth, as well as a super Massive Blackhole in the centre.

Horizontal Event

The event horizon is the region of space beyond the black hole. This is the “point of no return,” beyond which it is impossible to escape the black hole’s gravitational pull.

Horizon Telescope for Events Project EHT is a collection of eight radio telescopes (used to detect radio waves from space) spread throughout the globe.

Association of Asian Election Authorities (AAEA)

Why is this news worthy?

At the last meeting of the Executive board and General Assembly in Manila, Philippines, India was unanimously elected as the new Chair of the Association of Asian Election Authorities (AAEA) for the year 2022-2024.

Russia, Uzbekistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Taiwan, and the Philippines are among the new members of the Executive Board.

What exactly is AAEA?

It was founded in 1998 as a result of a resolution passed by participants at the Symposium on Asian Elections in the Twenty-First Century, held in Manila, Philippines from January 26 to 29, 1997.

AAEA now has 20 Asian election monitoring organisations as members.

The Election Commission of India is a founding member of the AAEA’s Executive Board, having served as Vice Chair from 2011 to 2013 and Chair from 2014 to 2016.

AAEA is also a member of the Association of World Election Bodies, which has 118 members (A-WEB).

What is the goal of the AAEA?

To create a non-partisan forum for election authorities in Asia to share their experiences and best practises.

To talk and take action in favour of good governance and democracy by promoting free and transparent elections.

What is India’s role in the AAEA?

At the International Institute for Democracy and Election Management, India has routinely organised many international training programmes for member countries (IIIDEM).

Since 2019, the IIIDEM has assisted in the training of over 250 officials from AAEA member countries.

The ECI also planned the International Election Visitors Programme (IEVP) and the International Virtual Election Visitors Programme (IEVP) for member nations during the Assembly elections in 2022.

What is the Indian Election Commission?

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is a constitutional body tasked with supervising, directing, and controlling electoral governance while upholding the values of equality, equity, impartiality, and independence entrenched in the Indian Constitution and the rule of law.

The ECI is established under Part XV of the Indian constitution, which deals with elections.

Articles 324 to 329 of the constitution deal with the commission’s and members’ powers, functions, tenure, eligibility, and so on.

The members of the ECI are chosen by the President of India based on the Prime Minister’s recommendations.

Article 324(2), on the other hand, states that Parliament has the authority to adopt legislation governing the appointment of Election Commissioners (ECs).

Other’s News

Electrolysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane

GAIL (India) Ltd has been awarded a contract to build a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Electrolyser in India as part of the National Hydrogen Mission.

Electrolysis of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is used in industry as a green source of high-purity hydrogen for chemical applications and energy storage.

PEM electrolyzers can convert renewable electricity into hydrogen fuel.

The use of molecular catalysts, such as CO2 reduction catalysts for the manufacture of carbon-based fuels, can potentially progress PEM electrolysis technologies in new areas with high efficacies.

PEM electrolyzers can currently only use noble metal catalysts.

Molecular catalysts, on the other hand, may open up new possibilities as a replacement.

Most of these catalysts can withstand high acidity since they were invented, tested, and extensively

Menstrual Period

Menstrual leave is a sort of leave in which women can take a paid or unpaid break from work while they are menstrual.

Having a measure like menstruation leave at their disposal encourages women to stay at home rather than going to work.

– Countries Some Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, allow women to take menstrual leaves.

Due to Zambia’s menstrual leave legislation, which is known as “Mother’s Day,” women are constitutionally entitled to take a day off each month.

Menstruation leave in India –

In India, there is no legal framework that allows women to take menstrual leave.

Bihar is the country’s only state with government-approved period leaves.

Bihar announced in 1992 that, in addition to their regular off days, all female employees would receive two consecutive days of leave per month.

The ‘Menstruation Benefits Bill, 2017’ was tabled in Parliament in 2017.

Women employed by both public and private establishments registered with the Central and/or state governments would have been entitled to two days of menstrual leave every month, for a total of 24 days of leave per year, under the Bill.

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