The Karnataka Chief Minister has said that it is time to examine the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act since it is causing more disputes than it is resolving. The chief minister’s declaration comes at a time when Karnataka has been embroiled in a protracted legal battle with neighbours Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa, and Andhra Pradesh over inter-state water conflicts involving the Cauvery, Mahadayi, and Krishna rivers.
The need of the hour:
The multi-tiered approach to resolving interstate water conflicts is eliminated in a single step.
The answer should be based on maximising the usefulness of a river basin’s capacity and using technology, with no regard for political issues.
Water issue between various states:
Art 262 establishes a mechanism for resolving interstate water issues. It has two provisions:
Parliament may enact legislation to resolve any disagreement or complaint about the usage, distribution, and management of waters in any interstate river or river valley.
Parliament may further specify that no such dispute or complaint shall be heard by the Supreme Court or any other court.
The central government has established the river boards act (1956) and the Inter-state water disputes act (1956) according to the act’s stipulations.
The river board statute establishes river boards to regulate and develop the Interstate River and its valleys. A river board of this kind is constituted at the request of the respective state governments.
The interstate water dispute legislation authorises the central government to establish an ad hoc tribunal to resolve disputes between two or more states over the water in an interstate river. The tribunal’s verdict would be definitive and conclusive. Additionally, the legislation precludes the Supreme Court and any other court from having jurisdiction in this dispute.
The interstate Water Dispute Act of 1956:
The Inter-State Water Dispute Act, 1956, which establishes the legal framework for resolving such disputes, has several shortcomings, including the absence of a time restriction for settling river water disputes.
Delays arise as a result of the absence of a time restriction for adjudication by a Tribunal, the absence of an upper age limit for the Chairman or Members, the stalling of work owing to the emergence of any vacancy, and the absence of a time limit for publishing the Tribunal’s report.
Since 1956, the River Boards Act 1956, which was enacted to enable interstate cooperation on water resource development, has been a ‘dead letter.’
The Central Water Commission (CWC) regulates surface water, whereas the Central Ground Water Board of India regulates groundwater (CGWB). Both organisations operate autonomously, and there is no venue for discussion of water management with state governments.
Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme
Why in News:
The Ministry of Electronics and Information (MeitY) is accepting applications for its Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme from 100 domestic enterprises, start-ups, and MSMEs.
MeitY announced the DLI Scheme in December 2021.
Under the DLI Scheme, financial incentives and assistance for design infrastructure will be extended for a five-year term.
This will be extended to domestic firms, start-ups, and MSMEs at different phases of semiconductor design development and deployment, including Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, System on Chips, Systems & IP Cores, and semiconductor linked design.
The initiative intends to foster at least 20 indigenous semiconductor design businesses and assist them in achieving revenue of more than Rs. 1500 crore in the next five years.
Centre for Advanced Computing Development (C-DAC), a scientific society governed by MeitY would be Implementing agency.
Applicants who are accepted and receive incentives will be encouraged to maintain their domestic status for a period of three years after their receipt of incentives under the programme.
It is beneficially held by resident Indian citizens and/or corporations that are ultimately owned and managed by resident Indian citizens.
To be eligible for incentives under the Scheme, an applicant must satisfy the Threshold and Ceiling Limits.
From January 1, 2022, to December 31, 2024, a dedicated site has been established for the purpose of soliciting online applications.
Additionally, the DLI Scheme will take a graded and proactive approach to identify products of national importance and develop strategies for their complete or near-complete indigenisation and deployment, thereby advancing import substitution and value addition in strategic and societal sectors.
Millimetre-Wave Band Auctions for 5G
Why in News:
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has sought inputs on the band design, block size, and auction conditions for spectrum in 5G bands, which comprise the Millimetre (mm) Wave band between 24.25-28.5 GHz.
The millimetre wave band, abbreviated as mm Wave, is a portion of the radio frequency spectrum between 24 and 100 GHz.
As the name implies, this spectrum has a short wavelength.
This spectrum is likely to enable faster data transfer rates and reduced latencies.
This results in efficient and smooth data transport since the currently available networks operate effectively at lower frequency bandwidths.
Low-frequency bands may be used to deliver 5G services.
They can reach wider distances and have been shown to perform well even in densely populated areas prone to interference.
However, these bands fall short of the peak data rates required for a full 5G experience.
As such, mm Wave is a critical component of the 5G jigsaw puzzle for mobile service providers.
Why in News:
On Thiruvalluvar Day (January 15), India’s Prime Minister paid homage to the legendary Thiruvalluvar.
Thiruvalluvar or Valluvar is a Tamil poet, philosopher, and saint. He is a cultural icon.
His most popular work, “Thirukkural,” is a collection of couplets about politics, ethics, economics, and love (Sacred Couplets).
Tiruvalluvar and his wife, Vasuki, are believed to have resided in Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu.
While the time period during which he lived is likewise controversial, some think he lived during the eighth and ninth centuries.
MaraimalaiAdigal, a Tamil orator and founder of the Pure Tamil movement said that Thiruvalluvar was born around 31 BC.
According to Kamil Zvelebil, a Czech specialist of Indian literature and languages, Valluvar lived approximately 500 AD.
Thiruvalluvar was most likely a poor Jain ascetic who worked as a weaver.
However, both Buddhists and Shaivites claim him as their own, and he is particularly loved by the lower castes.
A 133-foot-tall statue of Thiruvalluvar was unveiled at Kanyakumari in 2000. It was carved and created by V Ganapati Sthapati, a famous architect and sculptor.
Another monument was unveiled at Ulsoor, a suburb of Bengaluru, in 2009.
A statue of Valluvar was also constructed outside the School of Oriental and African Studies in Russell Square, London.
A temple dedicated to Thiruvalluvar is located inside the Ekambareswarar temple complex in Chennai.
In 1976, Chennai saw the construction of ValluvarKotam, a temple-memorial.
Islamic Cooperation Organization:
Why in News:
Iran diplomats return to Saudi Arabia after years to take up positions in the Islamic forum.
The Iranian delegation’s arrival to the Organization of Islamic Cooperationis the first such diplomatic gesture between Tehran and Riyadh since the two countries severed relations in 2016.
In 2016, when the country murdered famed Shiite cleric Nimr al-Nimr, demonstrators assaulted Saudi diplomatic offices in Iran.
At the time, Riyadh severed relations with Tehran, while the OIC’s foreign ministers denounced the bloodshed.
Concerning the OIC:
It is a non-governmental organisation created in 1969 and now consists of 57 member nations.
After the United Nations, it is the world’s second-biggest intergovernmental organisation.
According to the organization’s website, it serves as “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and aims to “defend and preserve the Muslim world’s interests in the spirit of fostering worldwide peace and harmony.”
The OIC is represented in the United Nations and the European Union on a permanent basis.
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is home to the Permanent Secretariat.
The OIC’s Importance for India:
Economic and energy interdependence between the OIC and India has grown in recent years.
Social constructivism is an IR theory school of thinking.
Constructivism’s emergence in international relations is often connected with the Cold War’s conclusion, an event that classic theories such as realism and liberalism failed to account for.
Nicholas Onuf invented the term social constructivism’ in 1989 in his book “The World of our Making.”
In this work, he argued that nation-states, like humans, exist in a reality that isessentially shaped by them rather than by external material elements.
Rather than being created, we are formed via our social and cultural interactions with others.
Similarly, states establish their identities and interests via interstate exchanges and alliances, which shape the structures and institutions they create among themselves.
While structures are actual, solid, and reasonably durable, they will serve their function only when communal meanings are assigned to them.