Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 20 Jan 2022

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Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 20 Jan 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

20 Jan 2022-Thrusday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Safai Karamcharis National Commission

Why in News:

The Union Cabinet adopts a three-year extension of the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis.


According to the NCSK Act 1993, the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) was founded as a statutory organisation in 1994.
  • It was developed originally for the time up to 1997. Later, the Act’s validity was extended until 2004.
  • The NCSK Act was repealed in 2004.
  • Following then, the NCSK’s lifespan as a non-statutory organisation has been periodically extended by resolutions.
  • The Commission now functions as an advisory body to the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • The NCSK is tasked with monitoring the execution of the 2013 Act prohibiting work as manual scavengers and providing for their rehabilitation.
  • It also gets complaints/petitions from all across the country from Manual Scavengers (Safai Karamcharis).
  • It requests factual information from the appropriate authorities in connection with these complaints/petitions and implores them to address the concerns of the affected Safai Karamcharis.
  • The Commission takes awareness of Safai Karamcharis concerns and attempts to address them via a pro-active role, based on information acquired through print or electronic media.

Endangered Eastern Swamp Deer

Why in News:

The Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve have seen a decline in the population of the endangered eastern swamp deer, which is extinct elsewhere in South Asia.


  • Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli), commonly known as swamp deer, elegant deer, or dolhorina, is a member of the Cervidae family (order Artiodactyla).
  • Swamp Deer Stags have ten to fourteen tines on their antlers, which gives them the Hindi name barasingha, meaning twelve-horned.
  • Barasingha are found in India and Nepal’s open forests and grasslands.
  • Once more prevalent, the barasingha is now restricted to isolated locations and national parks and reserves.
  • In India, there are three subspecies of Barasingha —
  • Wetland Barasingha (Rucervusduvauceliiduvacelii) – India’s biggest swamp deer.
  • Barasingha on stony ground (Rucervusduvauceliibranderi)
  • Eastern Barasingha (Rucervusduvauceliiranjitsinhii) – The Eastern Barasingha is the smallest of the Barasingha species.
  • The eastern swamp deer is the tiniest of the Barasingha species. In comparison to other subspecies, it has a shorter tail and antlers.
  • Eastern Barasingha is indigenous to Kaziranga National Park and is not a key prey for the park’s animals, like the tiger.
  • However, its population is critical to the tiger reserve’s ecological health.
  • The species has since relocated to other places, including Orang National Park and the Laokhowa-Burachapori wildlife sanctuary.
  • It is classified as an endangered species by the IUCN Red Data Book.

Global Research on Antimicrobial Resistance (GRAM) Analysis

Why in News:

  • Global Research on Antimicrobial Resistance (GRAM) estimated mortality associated with 23 infections and 88 pathogen-drug combinations using statistical modelling.


  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a term that refers to when antibiotics become ineffective against a broad spectrum of harmful microorganisms.
  • According to a thorough assessment of AMR’s worldwide effect including 204 nations and territories, 1.27 million people died directly as a consequence of AMR in 2019.
  • AMR is now the biggest cause of mortality globally, surpassing HIV/AIDS and malaria.
  • According to the GRAM study,
  • 7 lakh fatalities directly attributable to AMR (these would not have occurred had the infections been drug-susceptible),
  • AMR was responsible for 49.5 lakh fatalities (a drug-resistant infection was implicated, but resistance itself may or may not have been the direct cause of death).
  • Of the 23 pathogens analysed, medication resistance was directly responsible for 9.29 lakh fatalities and was linked with 3.57 million deaths in six (E coli, S aureus, K pneumoniae, S pneumoniae, A baumannii, and P aeruginosa).
  • A single pathogen-drug combination (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA) was directly responsible for almost a lakh fatalities.
  • Resistance to two antibiotics (fluoroquinolones and beta-lactam antibiotics), which are often regarded as the first line of defence against serious infections, accounted for more than 70% of AMR-related fatalities.

The Devas-Antrix arrangement

Why in news?

  • The Supreme Court has confirmed the liquidation of Devas, whose foreign investors are still seeking reimbursement for the 2005 satellite agreement with Antrix that was cancelled. The Supreme Court has continued to suspend the $1.2 billion judgement.

What is the Devas-Atrix?

  • In 2005, Devas signed a leasing agreement with ISRO’s business sector affiliate, Antrix Corporation. ISRO will lease two satellites, GSAT-6 and 6A, to Devas for a period of 12 years under the terms of the agreement.
  • Devas planned to deliver multimedia services to mobile phones in India by leasing 70 MHz of the S-band spectrum from ISRO.
  • The government cancelled the transaction on February 25, 2011, claiming “security concerns.”

What happened after the deal’s termination?

  • Following the termination, Devas and its foreign investors sought compensation via several international tribunals and courts. This resulted in an ICC arbitration between Antrix and Devas, as well as two bilateral investment treaty (BIT) arbitrations.
  • India was victorious in all three cases. In 2015, an International Chamber of Commerce panel awarded Devas $1.2 billion in damages. Besides that, in 2020, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in Geneva awarded Deutsche Telekom $101 million plus interest.
  • In 2020, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law awarded Mauritius investors $111 million.
  • German investors sought compensation for a breach of an India-Germany bilateral investment treaty, while Mauritius investors sought compensation for a breach of an India-Mauritius BIT.

What actions did India took?

  • The Indian government sent the matter to the CBI in 2014 to investigate the 2005 agreement.
  • It exemplified the abuse of government positions for personal gain. Additionally, the Enforcement Directorate filed a charge sheet against a former managing director of Antrix and five Devas officers for corruption in 2018 under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act.

Unique National/State Identities

Why in News?

  • The Central Government and State Governments have been introducing several Unique IDs to increase system transparency and reduce leakage.

What are the Central Government’s Unique IDs?


  • It is a 12-digit random number given by the UIDAI (“Authority”) to citizens of India who comply with the Authority’s verification procedure. Around 312 programmes were Aadhaar-enabled, with eleven ministries accounting for 70% of the initiatives.

Permanent Account Number (PAN) Card:

  • PAN is an acronym for Permanent Account Number. It is an alphanumeric, ten-digit unique number given by the Income Tax Department of India to each taxpayer.

Other Identities:

  • Additionally, there are additional unique IDs such as a voter ID for elections, a unique health ID for vaccination and health-related data, a unique ID for disabled individuals, a unique ID for property throughout 12 states, a corporate ID for each business, and a single unique ID for migrant workers.
  • Additionally, the government said in 2019 that it will begin issuing 12-digit unique identification numbers to farmers, which would cover all agriculture-related programmes.

What are the State Government-issued Unique IDs?

  • The Haryana government has introduced a plan called Parivar Pehchan Patra. Each household will be assigned a unique eight-digit identification number and the plan will connectall state government subsidy, pension, and insurance programmes.
  • Bhamashah Yojana is a plan launched by the Government of Rajasthan to transparently transmit financial and non-financial advantages from government initiatives to women beneficiaries.
  • Madhya Pradesh gives people with Samagra IDs and passwords to enable them to register for and access government benefits.
  • Rather than introducing their own unique IDs, states may simply group all Aadhaar IDs into a single family unit and then award benefits based on that information.

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