Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 22 Dec 2021

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

22 Dec 2021-Wednesday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

National Litigation Policy

National Litigation Policy is under consideration in order to lay down guidelines for preventing, controlling, and reducing litigation, keeping in view the policy & plans of the Government, in an organized manner.

  • National Litigation Policy (NLP) was formulated by the Department of Legal Affairs, the Ministry of Law and Justice in 2010.
  • NLP was floated to “curtail” filing of cases before the courts or tribunals again and again on the same issue.
  • This policy was formulated to bring down pendency and litigation from government agencies by making them more efficient and responsible in filing cases because Government and its agencies are the predominant litigants in courts and tribunals of the country.
  • Salient features of the policy
    1. Ensures government agencies being responsible while filing cases.
    2. Instructs to place correct facts, all relevant documents before the court/tribunal and not to mislead them.
    3. Reviews the pending cases with government as party on priority basis to enable quick disposal.
    4. Proposed a monitoring & review mechanism to sensitize the government in important cases and avoid delay and neglect of the same.

Lesser Florican

The longest in-country migration route of lesser floricans has been tracked for the first time from Rajasthan to Maharashtra.

  • The lesser florican, also known as the likh or khar more, is the smallest in the bustard family and the only member of the genus Sypheotides.
  • It is endemic to the Indian Subcontinent where it is found in tall grasslands and is best known for the leaping breeding displays made by the males during the monsoon season.
  • There is a recovery program launched for this bird by the Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India (WII).
  • The endangered bird is observed in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and some other regions during the monsoon season when it breeds and later disappears with its chicks to unknown places.

Mandatory Iron Fortification

India has decided to mandatorily fortify foods with iron. But there are many risks associated with it.

  • Iron is not safe in excess; its oxidant increases the risk for many non-communicable diseases.
  • Iron Fortification of anyone staple (rice, wheat, or salt) will increase serum ferritin without necessarily changing haemoglobin level.
  • A  U.S. study have shown that those with high ferritin level had a four-fold higher risk of having diabetes.
  • The Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey of adolescents of India shows that the high serum ferritin level has increased the risk of high blood sugar, high blood lipids and high blood pressure.
  • Issues – Risk of chronic disease is very high in our children, and risk magnification can be reduced by mandatory cereal fortification.
  • When mandatory fortification is enforced in parts of the population that do not need this, it removes their choice of foods and could even be unethical if the risk of other morbidities is increased.
  • Iron deficiency in the Indian diet is not a universal problem
  • Rice fortification has not been shown to work in a combined analysis of all available and rigorous studies.
  • Solution – India must await the forthcoming WHO haemoglobin cut-offs to get to the true anaemia burden and only rely on gold-standard venous blood haemoglobin in future surveys.
  • Dietary modification strategies should be the preferred solution.
  • Cereal intake is already too high, and should be replaced by more quality foods like pulses, fruits and vegetables, etc.
  • With the ever-expanding health care infrastructure (Ayushmann Bharat and associated clinics), we must move to equity for all in precision treatment – Evaluating the cause of anaemia and prescribing treatment.

Killer robots

India has decided to mandatorily fortify foods with iron. But there are many risks associated with it.

  • Iron is not safe in excess; its oxidant increases the risk for many non-communicable diseases.
  • Iron Fortification of anyone staple (rice, wheat, or salt) will increase serum ferritin without necessarily changing haemoglobin level.
  • A  U.S. study have shown that those with high ferritin level had a four-fold higher risk of having diabetes.
  • The Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey of adolescents of India shows that the high serum ferritin level has increased the risk of high blood sugar, high blood lipids and high blood pressure.
  • Issues – Risk of chronic disease is very high in our children, and risk magnification can be reduced by mandatory cereal fortification.
  • When mandatory fortification is enforced in parts of the population that do not need this, it removes their choice of foods and could even be unethical if the risk of other morbidities is increased.
  • Iron deficiency in the Indian diet is not a universal problem
  • Rice fortification has not been shown to work in a combined analysis of all available and rigorous studies.
  • Solution – India must await the forthcoming WHO haemoglobin cut-offs to get to the true anaemia burden and only rely on gold-standard venous blood haemoglobin in future surveys.
  • Dietary modification strategies should be the preferred solution.
  • Cereal intake is already too high, and should be replaced by more quality foods like pulses, fruits and vegetables, etc.
  • With the ever-expanding health care infrastructure (Ayushmann Bharat and associated clinics), we must move to equity for all in precision treatment – Evaluating the cause of anaemia and prescribing treatment.

All-India Quarterly Establishment Based Employment Survey (AQEES)

The Government has released the results of the first round of the Quarterly Employment Survey for the period April to June 2021.

  • QES is part of the All-India Quarterly Establishment Based Employment Survey (AQEES).

What is the All-India Quarterly Establishment Based Employment Survey (AQEES)?

  • It is released by Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour and Employment 
  • To provide frequent (quarterly) updates about the employment and related variables of establishments, in both organized and unorganized segments, of nine selected sectors.
  • These sectors altogether account for a majority of the total employment in the non-farm establishments. 
  • Nine Selected Sectors: 
  • Manufacturing, Construction, Trade, Transport, Education, Health, Accommodation and Restaurant, IT/ BPO and Financial Services.
  • There are two components under AQEES,
  • Quarterly Employment Survey (QES):It compiles relevant data from about 12,000 establishments selected through a sampling design to represent each of the nine sectors within each state/ Union Territory, as also each size-class (range of the number of workers) within each sector-State/ UT. 
  • Area Frame Establishment Survey (AFES):It covers the unorganized segment (with less than 10 workers) through a sample survey. 

What are the key highlights of QES 2021?

  • It shows a 29% increase in employment in nine sectors during the peak Covid-19 months of April-June 2021 over a base of 2013-14 (Sixth Economic Census – EC).
  • The most impressive growth of 152% has been recorded in the IT/BPO sector.
  • Nearly90% of the establishments have been estimated to work with less than 100 workers.
  • There has been a decline in the share of female workers. From 31% in the 6th EC (2013) to 29% in QES (2021) data.
  • Out of the 9 sectors, 7 sectors saw growth in employment while only 2 sectors (Trade, and Accommodation & Restaurants) saw a decline in employment figures.

Bill to link electoral rolls with Aadhaar

Lok Sabha has passed the Election Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2021. The Bill seeks to amend certain sections of the Representation of the People Act, 1950 and 1951.

What are the key provisions of the Election Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2021?

  • The Bill allows electoral registration officers to seek Aadhaar number of people who want to register as voters for the purpose of establishing their identity.
  • Further, it also seeks to allow the electoral registration officers to ask for Aadhaar number from persons already included in the electoral roll for the purposes of
    1. authentication of entries in electoral roll and 
    2. to identify registration of name of the same person in the electoral roll of more than one constituency or more than once in the same constituency.

Allowed to furnish other documents:

  • No application for inclusion of name in the electoral roll shall be denied and no entries in the electoral roll shall be deleted for the inability of an individual to furnish a Aadhaar number. Such people will be allowed to furnish other alternative documents as may be prescribed.

Four Qualifying Dates to Register as Voters: 

  • The Bill allows four “qualifying” dates (1st day of January, 1st day of April, 1st day of July and 1st day of October in a calendar year)for eligible people to register as voters.
  • As of now, January 1 of every year is the sole qualifying date. This was causing problems, as people who turn 18 on or before January 1 can register as voters. Those turning 18 after that have to wait for one whole year to register as voters.

What are the arguments against the Bill?

  • Bill is beyond the legislative competence of the government. The Aadhaar Act does not allow for the linking of Aadhaar with the electoral roll. It is an act that is for the targeted delivery of financial and other subsidy benefits and services.
  • Linking of voter ID with Aadhaar violates the fundamental right of privacy defined by the Supreme Court in the Puttaswamy case.

What are the arguments in support of the Bill?

  • Bill has a provision whereby the person may voluntarily provide an Aadhaar number. No application will be rejected because the Aadhaar number has not been provided.
  • Aadhaar linking with electoral rolls will solve one of the major problems in electoral database management, which is multiple enrolments of the same person at different places.

Project 15B

Warship Mormugao (D 67) sails for maiden sea trials.

  • Mormugao is the Indian Navy’s second indigenous stealth destroyer of Project 15B being built at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd (MDSL).
  • Project 15B class of guided missile destroyers (Visakhapatnam, Imphal, and Surat) are an improved variant of the Kolkata-class destroyers.
  • Project 15B ships retain the hull design of the Kolkata-class destroyers but incorporate advanced stealth features & a high degree of automation.
  • Designed indigenously by the Directorate of Naval Design, the vessels will offer improved survivability, sea keeping, and high maneuverability.
  • These warships are propelled by 4 gas turbines to achieve excess speed.
  • The first ship of Project 15B is a guided-missile destroyer christened ‘Visakhapatnam (D 66)’. It was launched in 2015.

 

Controlled Aerial Delivery System

Recently, a flight demonstration of the Controlled Aerial Delivery System of 500 kg capacity (CADS-500) was conducted by Aerial Delivery Research and Development Establishment (ADRDE).

  • The flight demonstration is part of a series of activities organized towards celebrating ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’, commemorating 75 years of Independence.

Key Points

  • The CADS-500 is used for precise delivery of payload up to 500 kgs predetermined location by making use of maneuverable capabilities of Ram Air Parachute (RAP).
  • It uses the Global Positioning System for the coordinates, altitude and heading sensors for the heading information during its flight.
  • The CADS, with its onboard electronics unit, autonomously steers its flight path using waypoint navigation towards the target location by operating controls.

ADRDE:

  • It is a Research & Development laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • It is involved in the development of paratrooper parachute systems, aircrew parachute systems, ammunition parachute systems, brake parachute, recovery parachute systems, aerial delivery parachute systems, heavy drop systems, inflatable systems, airship technologies, and aircraft arrester barrier systems.

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