Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 23 May 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

23 May 2022-Monday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

India's Competition Commission (CCI)

Why in the news?

The Finance Minister recently attended the Competition Commission of India’s 13th Annual Day celebration (CCI).

The Finance Minister also introduced an enhanced CCI website and opened the regional office in Kolkata.

What exactly is the Competition Commission of India (CCI)?

The Competition Commission of India (CCI) is a statutory entity of the Government of India charged with executing the Competition Act, 2002, and was established in March 2009.

On the recommendations of the Raghavan committee, the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act of 1969 (MRTP Act) was abolished and replaced by the Competition Act of 2002.

  • The Commission is made up of one Chairperson and six Members who are chosen by the Central Government.
  • The commission is a quasi-judicial entity that issues opinions to statutory agencies as well as handles other situations. The Chairperson and the other Members must be full-time members.

The Chairperson and each other Member shall be a person of ability, integrity, and standing who has been or is qualified to be a judge of a High Court, or who has special knowledge of, and professional experience of not less than fifteen years in international trade, economics, business, commerce, law, finance, accountancy, management, industry, public affairs, administration, or any other matter which, in the opinion of the CCI,

What is the 2002 Competition Act?

  • The Competition Act was passed in 2002, and the Competition (Amendment) Act of 2007 revised it. It adheres to the principles of modern competition legislation.
  • The Act bans anti-competitive agreements, enterprise abuse of dominant position, and combinations that have a significant adverse effect on competition within India.
  • The Competition Commission of India and the Competition Appellate Tribunal have been created in compliance with the terms of the Amendment Act.
  • In 2017, the government abolished the Competition Appellate Tribunal (COMPAT) and replaced it with the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT).

What are CCI’s Functions and Role?

  • To eradicate anti-competitive behaviours, defend consumer interests, and ensure free commerce in India’s marketplaces.
  • To provide an opinion on competition problems in response to a referral from a governmental authority.
  • To conduct competition advocacy, raise public awareness, and provide competition training.
  • Consumer Welfare: Making markets function for consumers’ benefit and welfare.
  • Ensure fair and healthy competition in economic activities in the country for faster and more inclusive economic growth and development.
  • Implement competition policies with the goal of achieving the most effective use of economic resources.
  • Carry out effective competition advocacy and disseminate information on the benefits of competition to all stakeholders in order to build and foster a competition culture in the Indian economy.

What are CCI’s current accomplishments?

  • The Commission has handled over 1,200 antitrust complaints, resulting in an antitrust case disposition rate of 89 percent.
  • It has also assessed over 900 mergers and acquisitions to date, clearing the majority of them in a record average time of 30 days.
  • The Commission has also introduced various innovations, such as the ‘Green Channel’ option for automated clearance on combinations/transactions, and has cleared more than 50 of these transactions.

What are the Obstacles?

  • Digitization’s Challenges: Because we did not have a robust digital economy at the time of the Act’s implementation (2002), CCI should comprehend the technological subtleties of the new digital era.
  • Need for a New Market Definition: India’s Commission must change its market definition immediately. Because there are no limits in the digital domain, establishing relevant markets has been a difficult issue for regulators worldwide.
  • Cartelization is a threat. There is the possibility of cartelization posing a hazard. The supply chain has been harmed as a result of the global lack of supplies caused by the epidemic, and now as a result of the war in Eastern Europe.

The Way Forward

  • With the advent of Web 3.0, AI, IoT, Blockchain, and other technological developments, and the emergence of issues such as data protection and privacy, platform neutrality, deep discounting, killer acquisitions, and so on, India requires a robust competition law that is tuned to meet the needs of today’s techno-legal world, enabling a true level playing field for digital market players.
  • CCI should comprehend the new digital era’s technological complexities and if these markets are being used fairly, effectively, and transparently for the advantage of consumers.
  • FAQs can become a permanent advocacy tool that can be utilised to spread information in a ready-to-use style.
  • This would reinforce CCI’s standing as a proactive and forward-thinking regulator, and such recommendations would assist market participants in taking preventive steps.

Archaeology Central Advisory Board

Why in the news?

The Central Advisory Board on Archaeology was recently reconstituted by the government (CABA).

What exactly is CABA?

  • It was formed to strengthen ties between the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and people involved in archaeological research.
  • The board will consist of “five persons selected in their personal capacities by the Government of India” as well as former ASI Directors-General.
  • The board will convene once a year and will advise the Centre on “matters relevant to archaeology” as defined by its members.
  • It will foster stronger collaboration between the Archaeological Survey of India and Indian universities pursuing archaeology research.
  • It will encourage studies relating to the application of archaeological concepts, the training of future archaeologists, and a greater interaction of learned societies in India and state governments with the ASI’s activities.

What exactly is India’s Archaeological Survey?

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which is part of the Ministry of Culture, is the principal body for archaeological study and the preservation of the nation’s cultural heritage.

It is in charge of around 3650 antique structures, archaeological sites, and remains of national significance.

Its activities include surveying antiquarian remnants, exploring and excavating archaeological sites, conserving and maintaining protected monuments, and so on.

Alexander Cunningham, the first Director-General of ASI, formed it in 1861. Alexander Cunningham is widely regarded as the “Father of Indian Archaeology.”

World Honey Bee Day

Why in the news?

Every year on May 20th, World Bee Day is observed. Previously, the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) unveiled the country’s first Mobile Honey Processing Van in Village, Uttar Pradesh.

What are our current understandings of World Bee Day?

  • The day commemorates the birth anniversary of Anton Jana, a modern apiculture pioneer.
  • Anton Jana came from a beekeeping family in Slovenia, where beekeeping is a significant agricultural business with a long history.
  • Anton participated in Europe’s first beekeeping school and worked as a full-time beekeeper.
  • ‘Discussion on Bee-keeping,’ his book, was also published in German.
Bee Engaged:

 Celebrating the diversity of bees and beekeeping systems is the theme for 2022.

What is the Meaning of Beekeeping?

Pollinators Who Are Most Important:
  • Bees are crucial pollinators that ensure food and food security, sustainable agriculture, and biodiversity.
  • Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation: Bees make substantial contributions to climate change mitigation and environmental protection.
  • Long-term bee protection and the beekeeping industry can help eliminate poverty and hunger while also preserving a healthy environment and biodiversity.

Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Job Creation: Beekeeping is also crucial for sustainable agriculture and rural job creation.

They improve agricultural production by pollinating, hence preserving diversity and variation in the fields.

Furthermore, they employ millions of people and are a significant source of income for farmers.

Meeting India’s Goal of Doubling Farmers’ Income:
  • According to the Food and Agricultural Organization database, India placed eighth in the world in terms of honey production (64.9 thousand tonnes) in 2017-18, while China ranked first with 551 thousand tonnes.
  • Furthermore, beekeeping can play an essential role in meeting the 2022 aim of doubling farmer earnings.

What is the Current State of Apiculture in India?

  • The global apiculture market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.3 percent between 2020 and 25 years, with Asia–Pacific becoming as the leading producer.
  • The Indian apiculture market is estimated to reach Rs 33,128 million by 2024, growing at a CAGR of approximately 12 percent.
  • India is the world’s sixth largest exporter of natural honey.
  • Natural honey exports totaled 59,536.75 MT for Rs 633.82 crore in 2019–20. The United States, Saudi Arabia, Canada, and Qatar were the top export destinations.
  • The international demand for organic honey could be used to promote organic beekeeping practises.

What exactly are Related Initiatives?

  • ‘Sweet Revolution’ is an ambitious effort launched by the Government of India to promote apiculture, also known as ‘beekeeping.’
  • In order to give Sweet Revolution a push, the government launched the National Beekeeping and Honey Mission in 2020. (under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare).
  • The National Beekeeping and Honey Mission intends to construct five large regional laboratories and 100 small honey and other bee product testing laboratories.
  • Out of the total aim, three world-class, cutting-edge laboratories have been established, with another 25 small laboratories in the works.
Assistance in the Establishment of Processing Units:

India is also assisting beekeepers in the establishment of Processing Units.

In the country, more than 1.25 lakh metric tonnes of honey are produced, with more than 60 thousand metric tonnes of natural honey exported.

Using Scientific Methods:

To improve the quality of domestic honey and attract the global market, the Government of India and state governments are collaborating and focusing on beekeeping capacity building through the use of scientific procedures.

What are some of the highlights of Bee?

  • There are about 20,000 different species of bees on the planet.
  • Bees live in colonies, and there are three sorts of bees in each colony: the queen bee, the worker bee, and the drone.
  • Although both the worker and queen bees are females, only the queen bee can procreate. All of the drones are male.
  • Worker bees clean the hive, collect pollen and nectar to feed the colony, and look after the young. Only the queen bee mates with the drone.
  • Four of the seven known bee species are found in India.

Other’s News

Gain in Storage

Following the relaxation of the Fair and Average Quality standards for wheat procurement this season by the Centre, Punjab’s state procurement agencies (SPAs) are now requesting a remission of’storage gain.’

Wheat tends to gain weight when stored. This is known as’storage gain,’ and it is caused primarily by moisture absorption.

The weight gain/loss was determined by the moisture content at the time of stacking, with the change in ambient circumstances playing only a minor influence.

The endosperm, one of the three components of a grain, absorbs the majority of the moisture.

The grain is divided into three parts: bran (the outer layer rich in fibre), germ (the inner layer rich in nutrients), and endosperm (bulk of the kernel which contains minerals and vitamins).

Compensation –
  • Wheat is purchased and stored by state procurement agency.
  • To compensate for storage gain, they must provide one kg of wheat more every quintal to the Food Corporation of India (FCI), the Centre’s central agency for grain acquisition.
  • The FCI and SPAs procure 20% of the wheat, which is transferred promptly after procurement.
  • However, because of the longer storage term, the remaining 80%, which is normally moved out after July 1 every year, must account for storage gain.


  • The Kerala government has been chastised by the Supreme Court for delaying compensation for Endosulfan pesticide exposure victims.
  • Endosulfan is an ester of cyclic sulfite. It is a biocide containing organochlorines.
  • It is a cream-to-brown substance with a strong odour that can take the form of crystals or flakes.
  • It has a higher density than water and is practically insoluble in water.
  • It does not occur naturally in nature.
  • It’s utilised as a pesticide, fungicide, and herbicide. It is used as a wood preservative and to control insects on food and non-food crops.
  • It is sprayed on cotton, cashews, fruits, tea, paddy, and tobacco, among other things.
  • It is used to manage pests and mites by causing neurotoxicity.
  • Problems – It is hazardous when inhaled, absorbed via the skin, or consumed.
  • Receiving soils act as a key reservoir of endosulfan in the environment after application.
  • Endosulfan has a high mobility across environmental compartments due to its hydrophobic characteristics.
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