Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 27 May 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

27 May 2022-Friday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Annual Industry Survey (ASI)

Why in the news?

The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has announced preliminary results of the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI).

The poll was performed via the ASI Web Portal from April 2021 to January 2022.

What exactly is the ASI?

  • ASI, India’s primary source of industrial statistics, provides the most comprehensive data on organised manufacturing.
  • It applies to all factories with 10 or more employees that use power and those with 20 or more employees who do not use power.
  • What are the Survey’s Highlights?
  • Increase in Factories: The number of factories in the country climbed by 1.7 percent year on year to 2.46 lakh in 2019-20, employing 1.3 crore people.
Gross Fixed Capital Creation:
  • In 2019-20, the organised manufacturing sector’s gross fixed capital formation increased by 20.5 percent to Rs 4.15 lakh crore, compared to a 10.2 percent increase to Rs 3.44 lakh crore in the previous fiscal.
  • This contrasts to a 1.98 percent increase in the number of factories in 2018-19 to 2.42 lakh and a 1.2 percent increase in the post-demonetisation year of 2017-18.
  • These figures are significant because they represent the results for the typical year of 2019-20, prior to the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, which impacted employment growth.

Fixed capital is the depreciated value of the factory’s fixed assets as of the end of the fiscal year, and it includes land, including leasehold land, buildings, plant and machinery, furniture and fixtures, transport equipment, water system, and roadways, as well as other fixed assets used by factory workers such as hospitals, schools, and so on.

Work in the Corporate Sector:
  • Employment in the corporate sector, which comprises public and private government and non-government organisations, climbed 5.5 percent to 97.03 lakh in 2019-20, while employment in the individual proprietorship decreased 3.1 percent to 11.36 lakh.
  • Partnership employment declined 11.7 percent to 18.58 lakh in 2019-20, while limited liability partnership employment increased 42 percent to 1.22 lakh.
  • Employment of Workers: In 2019-20, Tamil Nadu has the greatest number of workers employed, followed by Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Total Salaries Paid:
  • Total wages paid to workers increased by 6.3 percent in 2019-20, compared to 11.9 percent in the previous fiscal year.
  • Wages for corporate factory workers increased by 7.7 percent in 2019-20.
  • Workers figures include all individuals employed directly or through any agency, whether for wages or not, and engaged in any manufacturing process, cleaning any part of the machinery or premises used in the manufacturing process, or performing any other type of work related to the manufacturing process.

Money Spider and Ant-Mimicking Spider Found

Why in the news?

  • Money spiders, which are prevalent in European meadows, have been discovered for the first time in India in the Muthanga range of the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Christ College (Kerala) researchers have also discovered ant-mimicking spiders from the Mananthavady range, which belong to the category of jumping spiders.
Money Spider’s Key Points:
  • Spiders of the genus Prosoponoides are members of the dwarf spider family (Linyphiidae).
  • So yet, only six species of spiders belonging to this genus have been recognised from throughout the world.
  • Prosoponoides biflectogynus is the name given to it.
  • Male and female money spiders are about 3 mm and 4 mm long, respectively.
  • Both sexes are dark brown with irregular silver patches and black markings on the elliptical abdomen.
  • Their olive-green legs include several fine black spines.
  • Eight dark eyeballs are grouped in two rows.
  • Females weave triangular webs between dry tree twigs and feed on small insects, whereas males prefer to hide beneath dry leaves.
Concerning Ant-Mimicking Spiders:
  • Toxeus alboclavus is the scientific name for the ant-mimicking spider.
  • They are members of the Salticidae family.
  • This species’ male and female spiders can grow to be 4 mm and 6 mm long, respectively.

Females are distinguished from other spiders in this group by a pair of white stripes on their dark brown abdomen (jumping spiders).

The species’ male has a brown cephalic region and a black thorax with white hairs.

The forward-projecting teeth bear the shape of an antlers.

Long spines can be found at the base of each leg.

Wildlife Sanctuary of Wayanad
  • Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS), located in Kerala, is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. It was founded in 1973.
  • The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve was the first in India to be recognised by the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (designated in 2012).
  • Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Mukurthi National Park, and Silent Valley are among the other wildlife parks inside the Reserve.
  • Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, which covers 344.44 square kilometres, is next to the tiger reserves of Nagerhole and Bandipur in Karnataka and Mudumalai in Tamil Nadu.
  • The sanctuary is traversed by the Kabini River (a tributary of the Cauvery River).
  • South Indian Moist Deciduous woods, West Coast Semi-evergreen forests, and teak, eucalyptus, and Grewelia plantations are among the forest types.
  • The prominent mammals are the elephant, Gaur, Tiger, Panther, Sambar, Spotted deer, Barking deer, Wild boar, Sloth bear, Nilgiri langur, Bonnet macaque, Common langur, Wild dog, common otter, Malabar giant squirrel, and more.

National Achievement Survey (NAS)-2021

Why in the news?

  • The Ministry of Education just published the National Achievement Survey (NAS) 2021 report.
  • In November 2021, the Triennial Survey was conducted.
  • NAS 2021 was attended by around 34 lakh children from 1.18 lakh schools in 720 districts from both rural and urban places.

What exactly is the 2021 National Achievement Survey (NAS)?

  • It is a nationwide survey designed to measure the learning outcomes and overall health of the school system.
  • It is the country’s largest nationwide sample-based education survey.
  • The Ministry of Education is in charge of it.
  • NAS 2021 was administered by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).
  • For NAS-2021, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) created an evaluation structure and instruments.
  • It offers a system-wide assessment of the effectiveness of school education.
  • It gathers data on relevant background characteristics such as the school environment, teaching practises, and student home and background variables.
  • It includes all types of schools in India, including government schools (both state and central), government-aided schools, and private schools.

English, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Hindi, Malayalam, Marathi, Manipuri, Mizo, Punjabi, Odia, Telugu, Tamil, Bodo, Urdu, Garo, Konkani, Khasi, Bhutia, Nepali, and Lepcha were among the 22 mediums of instruction used for the NAS 2021.

It was held in several disciplines for various grades.

The subject and grade breakdown is as follows:
  • Language, EVS, and Mathematics in grades 3 and 5
  • Language, Science, Mathematics, and Social Science in Grade 8
  • Language, Science, Mathematics, Social Science, and English in Grade 10

To assess children’s growth and learning competencies as an indicator of the educational system’s efficiency in order to conduct suitable remedial actions at various levels.

  • It will aid in the identification of learning gaps and will assist state/UT governments in developing long-term, mid-term, and short-term actions to increase learning levels and orient on differential planning based on NAS 2021 data.
  • The findings of NAS 2021 will aid in the diagnosis of a systematic knowledge of the effects that lengthy school closures have had on children’ learning in terms of their socio-emotional and cognitive development.
  • The findings of the NAS will aid in the capacity building of teachers and education officials.

What are the NAS 2021 Key Highlights?

National Mean:

The national average percentage of students in third grade was 59 percent, which fell by 10% to 49 percent in fifth grade.

It then fell to 41.9 percent in class eight and 37.8 percent in class ten.

Almost all subjects showed a reduction in performance.

For example, the national mathematics score was 57 percent in class third, declining to 44 percent in class fifth, 36 percent in class eighth, and 32 percent in class tenth.

The national language score was 62 percent in class third, 52 percent in class fifth, and 53 percent in class eighth.

In science, the national score fell from 39 percent in eighth grade to 35 percent in tenth grade.

Rural and Urban Areas:

School performance in rural areas remained “much lower” than in urban areas in the same states and union territories (UTs).

Social-Group Performance:

Pupils from the schedule caste (SC), schedule tribe (ST), and Other Backward Classes (OBC) categories performed worse than students from the general category.

Gender Performance:

Girls continue to outperform boys in practically all subjects across all grades, both nationally and at the state level.

Students’ Perceptions of Learning:

The perception of pupils regarding learning at home during the pandemic when schools were closed, and 78 percent of students described it as difficult with many assignments.

At least 38% of pupils had difficulty learning at home, and 24% did not have access to digital devices at home.

How did the United States fare?

  • While the majority of states scored much lower than the national average, few states, like Kerala, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Punjab, outperformed the national average.
  • When compared to the national average, Delhi’s performance in eighth and tenth grades was higher.
  • Punjab gets the top scores in all subjects for grades 3, 5, and 8.

What is the Current State of Education in India?

Provisions of the Constitution:
  • Article 45 of the Indian Constitution and Article 39 (f) of the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) provide for state-funded, equitable, and accessible education.
  • Education was shifted from the State to the Concurrent List by the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1976.
  • Article 21-A of the Constitution was amended in 2002 to make education an enforceable right.
Related Statutes:
  • The Right to Education (RTE) Act of 2009 establishes basic education as a fundamental right for all children aged 6 to 14 years.
  • It also requires a 25% reservation for underprivileged groups in society.
Initiatives of the Government:
  • 2020 National Education Policy
  • 0 Samagra Shiksha (SS)
  • Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) Performance Grading Index NIPUN Bharat Mission PM Poshan Scheme

Other’s News

Pusa Soft Wheat 1

  • Pusa Soft Wheat 1 is a soft wheat type produced by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) (HD 3443).
  • An earlier soft wheat experiment, HS 490, created by IARI scientists in 2008-09, did not succeed since the yield level was lower and only suitable for cultivation in the Himalayan foothills.
  • The first soft wheat variety in India is Pusa Soft Wheat 1 (HD 3443).
  • It is registered with the Plant Variety Protection and Farmers’ Rights Authority.
  • It is suitable for cultivation in all producing countries.
  • It produces more than 5 tonnes per hectare, has a protein content of 11.5 percent, and a gluten content of 8.9 percent.
  • Soft wheat flour requires less grinding force since it has smaller particle size and absorbs less water when kneaded into dough.
  • For the greatest quality, soft wheat goods such as cake and biscuits, as well as noodles, require less water to be absorbed by the flour.
  • To identify lines with grain softness and gluten strength, molecular marker technology was applied.

First Movers Alliance

  • India, Japan, and Sweden have joined the steering committee of the First Movers Coalition to decarbonize carbon-intensive sectors.
  • The First Movers Coalition is a global project initiated at COP26 by the United States and the World Economic Forum (WEF) (Glasgow).
  • It is being introduced as a flagship public-private partnership, coupled with breakthrough Carbon Removal technologies, to clean up these most carbon-intensive sectors.
  • It aspires to use corporate purchasing power to decarbonize the seven carbon-heavy industries and long-distance transportation sectors that account for 30% of world emissions.
  • [Aluminum, aviation, chemicals, concrete, shipping, steel, and trucking are the industrial sectors responsible for 30% of world emissions.]
  • This Coalition seeks to establish early markets for clean technologies through public initiatives and private-sector participation.
  • Working – Despite the higher cost, coalition members have agreed to purchasing a percentage of their goods from suppliers who use near-zero or zero-carbon solutions.
  • Members would make this purchase from their overall industrial materials and long-distance transportation spending.
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