Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 30 Dec 2021

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

30 Dec 2021-Thrusday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Apatani Textile

  • Recently, an application seeking a Geographical Indication (GI) tag for the Arunachal Pradesh Apatani textile product has been filed by a firm.

Key Points

  • The Apatani weave comes from the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh living at Ziro, the headquarters of the Lower Subansiri district.
  • The Apatani community weaves its textiles for various occasions, including rituals and cultural festivals.
  • The woven fabric of this tribe is known for its geometric and zigzag patterns and also for its angular designs.
  • The tribe predominantly weaves shawls known as jig-jiro and Jilani jackets called 
  • The people here use different leaves and plant resources for organic dying the cotton yarns in their traditional ways and Only women folk are engaged in weaving.
  • The traditional handloom of this tribe is a type of loin loom, which is called Chichin and is similar to the traditional handloom of the thhandloome Nyishi tribe.
  • Apatani Tribes:
  • Apataniis a tribal group of people living in the Ziro valley in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • They speak a local language called Tani and worship the sun and the moon.
  • They follow a sustainable social forestry system.
  • They celebrate major festivals – Dree with prayers for a bumper harvest and prosperity of all humankind and Myoko to celebrate Friendship.
  • The Apatanis practice aquaculture along with rice farming on their plots.
  • It is a scheduled tribe in Arunachal Pradesh.

Gram Ujala Programme

Why in News:

  • The Government has achieved a remarkable milestone of distributing 50 lakhs LED bulbs under Project Crore of their Gram Ujala programme.

About:

  • Under the Gram Ujala scheme, high-quality 7-Watt and 12-Watt LED bulbs with 3 years guarantee is provided at Rs. 10 per bulb in exchange for working 60-Watt and 100-Watt incandescent bulbs.
  • LED is a highly energy-efficient lighting technology. Residential LED bulbs use at least 75% less energy than conventional ones and last 25 times longer.
  • Every household can exchange a maximum of 5 bulbs. The government will also install meters at these houses.
  • Gram Ujala scheme is being implemented in rural households in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Telangana.
  • It is implemented by Convergence Energy Services Limited (CESL).
  • The programme is active till March 31, 2022.
  • Gram Ujala Programme is based upon the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) protocols of the United Nations.

State of India's Livelihoods (SOIL) Report 2021

  • The State of India’s Livelihoods (SOIL) Report is an Annual Report released by the ACCESS Developmental Services.
  • It is an authoritative commentary on
    • Policy and programmes of the government, potential opportunities for the poor, and
    • Role of the private sector and civil society in livelihoods promotion.
  • It tracks the trends and analyses the environment in the sector.
  • The 2021 Report has analyzed only Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs).
  • In the last 7 years, just 1-5 % of FPOs have received funding under central government schemes introduced to promote them.
  • Only 5% of total registered FPOs have been able to secure the grants under Equity Grant Scheme and Credit Guarantee Scheme.
  • FPOs registered under the Companies Act make up a large majority of the organizations while the FPOs registered as cooperatives /societies are less in number.

RBI’s Retail Direct Scheme

Why in News:

  • RBI’s Retail Direct platform allows individuals to open and maintain a no-charge Retail Direct Gilt (RDG) account directly with the RBI.

About:

  • NRIs eligible to invest in g-secs under FEMA can open this account too.
  • This platform helps in buying government debt securities (G-Secs), either during their initial issue or after they begin to trade in the secondary market.
  • RBI’s Retail Direct platform gives you access to primary auctions first.
  • To get access to secondary market trades which happen on the Negotiated Dealing System – Order Matching (NDS-OM), and itneeds to apply separately on Retail Direct to get a user login and password.
  • RBI conducts periodic auctions of g-secs according to a schedule called the borrowing calendar that it puts out every half year for g-secs and quarter for treasury bills.
  • Through this new platform, retail investors can invest a minimum of ₹10,000 going up to ₹2 croresin these auctions.
  • In the Retail Direct Scheme, the four types of securities that can be auctioned are,
    1. Dated government stock (Central government borrowings for 1 year to 40 years),
    2. Treasury bills or T-bills (Central government borrowings for 91, 182, and 364 days),
    3. State Development Loans (State government borrowings for 1 year to 30 years) and
    4. Sovereign Gold Bonds.
  • RBI sets a maximum coupon rate or minimum price for each security in every auction and institutions bid based on this. The lowest coupon or highest price at which an auction gets fully subscribed becomes the ‘cut-off’ yield or price.
  • The retail investor needs to know how to bid and can simply choose the final cut-off price or yield that will be discovered by institutions.
  • Money is collected upfront from the bank account based on the reserve price set by the RBI.

Gig Workers

Why in News

  • The surge in demand for gig workers, particularly in the shared services and logistics segments, in the aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic led to mushrooming of job discovery platforms.

About Gig Economy:

    • A gig economy is a free market system in which temporary positions are common and organizations contract with independent workers for short-term engagements.
    • According to a report by Boston Consulting Group, India’s gig workforce comprises 15 million workers employed across industries such as software, shared services, and professional services.
    • An estimated 56% of new employment in India is being generated by the gig economy companies across both the blue-collar and white-collar workforce.

Different Collar Jobs

  • Blue-Collar Worker: 
  • It is a member of the working class, who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage.
  • White-Collar Worker:
  • It is a salaried professional, typically referring to general office workers and management.
  • Gold-Collar Worker: 
  • It is used to refer to highly-skilled knowledgeable people who are highly valuable to the company. Example: Lawyers, doctors, research scientists,
  • Grey-Collar Worker: 
  • It refers to the balance of employed people not classified as white or blue-collar. Although grey-collar is something used to describe those who work beyond the age of retirement. 
  • Example: Firefighters, police officers, health care professionals, Security Guards, etc.
  • Green-Collar Worker: 
  • It is a worker who is employed in the environmental sectors of the economy.
  • Example: People working in alternative energy sources like solar panels, Greenpeace, World Wide Fund for nature, etc.
  • Pink-Collar Worker: 
  • It is employed in a job that is traditionally considered to be women’s work and is often low-paid.
  • Scarlet-Collar Worker: 
  • It is a term often used to refer to people who work in the pornography industry, especially women entrepreneurs in the field of internet pornography.
  • Red-Collar Worker: Government workers of all types.
  • Open-Collar Worker: 
  • It is a worker who works from home, especially via the internet.

Nuclear Submarine Alliance: AUKUS

Why in News

  • Recently, Australia, the US, and the UK signed an agreement allowing the exchange of sensitive “naval nuclear propulsion information” between their nations.
  • It is the first agreement on the technology to be publicly signed since the three countries announced the formation of a defense allianceAUKUS.
  • Under the AUKUS deal, Australia would obtain eight state-of-the-art, nuclear-powered but conventionally armed submarines capable of stealthy, long-range missions.

About AUKUS:

  • In September 2021, the US announced a new trilateral security partnership for the Indo-Pacific, between Australia, the UK, and the US (AUKUS).
  • The major highlight of this arrangement is the sharing of US nuclear submarine technology to Australia.
  • Its Indo-pacific orientation makes it an alliance against China’s assertive actions in the South China Sea.
  • It will involve a new architecture of meetings and engagements between the three countries, as well as cooperation across emerging technologies (applied AI, quantum technologies, and undersea capabilities).

ECWCS: Extreme Cold Weather Clothing System

Why in News

  • Recently, DRDO handed over a Technology for indigenous Extreme Cold Weather Clothing System (ECWCS) to five Indian companies.

Key Points

  • It is an ergonomically designed modular technical clothing with improved thermal insulation and physiological comfort based on the insulation required at various ambient climatic conditions in Himalayan regions during different levels of physical activity.
  • The ECWCS embodies physiological concepts related to the reduction in respiratory heat and water loss, unhindered range of motions, and rapid absorption of sweat while providing waterproof, windproof features with adequate breathability and enhanced insulation as well as strength features required for high altitude operations.
  • It is designed to suitably provide thermal insulation over a temperature range of +15 to -50 degrees Celsius with different combinations of layers and intensity of physical work.

Significance:

  • It is required by the Indian Army for its sustained operations in glacier and Himalayan peaks. 
  • The Army, till recently has been importing extreme cold weather clothing and several Special Clothing and Mountaineering Equipment (SCME) items for the troops deployed in high altitude regions.
  • It provides an advantage of fewer combinations to meet the required insulation for the prevailing climatic conditions.

YEAR-END REVIEW-2021: DEPARTMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Indian Telecom Scenario in 2021

  • Increase in Telephone and Internet Subscription between 2014-21: 
  • Telephone connections registered a growth of 28%
  • Urban telephone connections rose by 20% while the growth in rural telephone connections was 40% and 
  • Internet connections registered a growth of 231%.
  • Increase in FDI: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the telecom sector rose by around 150% between 2014-2021.

Reforms in Telecom Sector

  • Rationalization of Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR): Non-telecom revenue will be excluded on a prospective basis from the definition of AGR.
  • Spectrum Tenure: In future Auctions, the tenure of spectrum increased from 20 to 30 years. Moreover, surrender of the spectrum will be permitted after 10 years for spectrum acquired in future auctions.
  • No Spectrum Usage Charge (SUC) for spectrum acquired in future spectrum auctions.
  • Spectrum sharing is being encouraged as an additional SUC of 0.5% for spectrum sharing is removed.
  • To encourage investment,100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) under automatic route permitted in Telecom Sector.

Initiatives in Telecom Sector

  • Bharat Net
  • PM WANI
  • Submarine optical fiber cable project

Emerging Technologies:

  • High Throughput Satellites (HTS)
  • HTS has the capability of delivering significantly enhanced data rates as compared to conventional satellites.
  • The deployment of HTS in the coming times will be instrumental in providing abundant capacity and connectivity to unconnected or sparsely connected regions.
  • Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite: It is an emerging satellite technology that offers low latency communication by low propagation delay. Such new technology satellites may supplement the availability of requisite bandwidth that could be utilized for rendering broadband services along with voice communication in difficult terrain and far-flung areas.
  • Trusted Telecom Portal

Indexes:

  • Network Readiness Index:  India has jumped 21 ranks from 88 in 2020 to 67th position in 2021.
  • India ranks among the top 10 in ITU’s Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) 2020

Future Initiatives

  • 5G Testbed:
  • It is funded by DoT and it will enable the development, testing, and proliferation of 5G technology system components, cross-sectoral use cases, besides setting up the foundation for the development of the “6G Technology landscape” in the country.
  • 6G Technology Innovation Group (TIG):
  • It is constituted by DoT with the objective to co-create and participate in the development of the 6G technology ecosystem through increased participation in a capability description, standards development at international standard-setting bodies. 

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