Daily Prelims Newsletter for upsc 30 Mar 2022

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

30 Mar 2022-Wednesday

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Report on the State of the World Population in 2022

Why in the news?

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) recently released its flagship State of World Population Report 2022, titled “Seeing the Unseen: The Case for Action in the Neglected Crisis of Unintended Pregnancy.”

What are the Report’s Key Findings?

  • Rising Unintended Pregnancies: Each year between 2015 and 2019, there were approximately 121 million unintended pregnancies worldwide.
  • Lack of Safe, Modern Contraception Methods: An estimated 257 million women worldwide who want to avoid pregnancy do not use safe, modern contraception methods.
  • Rape-Related Pregnancies on the Rise:
  • Almost one-quarter of all women are unable to say no to sex.
  • Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use contraception at a rate that is 53% lower.
  • Pregnancies caused by rape are as likely as or more likely than pregnancies caused by consensual sex.

Abortion is on the rise: Abortion occurs in more than 60% of unintended pregnancies and nearly 30% of all pregnancies.

45 percent of all abortions performed around the world are unsafe.

Unsafe abortions cost developing countries an estimated USD 553 million per year in treatment costs alone.

Humanitarian Emergencies Have an Impact: During humanitarian emergencies, such as the ongoing war in Ukraine, many women lose access to contraception and/or face sexual violence.

According to some studies, more than 20% of refugee women and girls will face sexual violence.

The estimated disruption in contraceptive supplies and services lasted an average of 3.6 months during the first 12 months of the Covid-19 pandemic, resulting in up to 1.4 million unintended pregnancies.

What Factors Contribute to Unintended Pregnancies?

  • Inadequate sexual and reproductive health care and education
  • Contraceptive methods that are inappropriate for women’s bodies or circumstances
  • Harmful norms and stigma associated with women’s control over their own fertility and bodies
  • Sexual exploitation and reproductive coercion
  • In health care, judgmental attitudes or shaming are common.
  • Poverty and stalled economic growth
  • Inequality of gender

What Factors Contribute to Unintended Pregnancies?

  • Inadequate sexual and reproductive health care and education
  • Contraceptive methods that are inappropriate for women’s bodies or circumstances
  • Harmful norms and stigma associated with women’s control over their own fertility and bodies
  • Sexual exploitation and reproductive coercion
  • In health care, judgmental attitudes or shaming are common.
  • Poverty and stalled economic growth
  • Inequality of gender

What Factors Contribute to Unintended Pregnancies?

  • Inadequate sexual and reproductive health care and education
  • Contraceptive methods that are inappropriate for women’s bodies or circumstances
  • Harmful norms and stigma associated with women’s control over their own fertility and bodies
  • Sexual exploitation and reproductive coercion
  • In health care, judgmental attitudes or shaming are common.
  • Poverty and stalled economic growth
  • Inequality of gender

Impact on Children’s Future: Children born as a result of an unplanned pregnancy may perform worse in school, social and emotional development, and later labor-market success than children born as a result of a planned pregnancy.

Unwanted pregnancy may also play a role in predicting and understanding child maltreatment.

Unplanned pregnancy can also jeopardise educational goals and have a negative impact on future earning potential and family financial well-being, with consequences that extend to state budgets.

What are the recommendations?

Decision-makers and health-care systems must prioritise the prevention of unintended pregnancies by improving the accessibility, acceptability, quality, and variety of contraception, as well as vastly expanding access to high-quality sexual and reproductive health care and information.

Women and girls should be empowered to make positive choices about sex, contraception, and motherhood by policymakers, community leaders, and all individuals.

Encourage societies that value women and girls for who they are.

If they do, women and girls will be able to fully contribute to society and will have the tools, information, and power to make this fundamental decision—whether or not to have children—for themselves.

What exactly is the UN Population Fund?

It is a UN General Assembly subsidiary organ that works as a sexual and reproductive health agency.

The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC) establishes its mandate.

Establishment:

It was established in 1967 as a trust fund and began operations in 1969.

The United Nations Population Fund was officially renamed in 1987, but the original abbreviation, ‘UNFPA’ for the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, was retained.

Goal:

 UNFPA works directly to address the Sustainable Development Goals for health (SDG3), education (SDG4), and gender equality (SDG5) (SDG5).

Funding:

 UNFPA is entirely supported by voluntary contributions from donor governments, intergovernmental organisations, the private sector, foundations, and individuals, rather than the UN budget.

Report: The State of the World’s Population.

The BRICS Media Forum

Why in the news?

The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) recently launched a three-month journalism training programme.

The programme was created by the BRICS Media Forum.

What exactly is the BRICS Media Forum?

The Forum was founded in 2015 by media organisations from five countries, including The Hindu (India), CMA Group in Brazil, Sputnik in Russia, Xinhua in China, and Independent Media in South Africa.

Through exchange and pragmatic cooperation under the mechanism, the forum aims to establish an efficient coordination mechanism among BRICS media, advance innovation-driven media development, and gather stronger momentum for BRICS countries’ development.

What is the BRICS History?

The acronym “BRICS” was coined in 2001 by Goldman Sachs economist Jim O’Neill in a report on the growth prospects for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China – which together represented a significant share of the world’s production and population.

The grouping was formalised during the first meeting of BRIC Foreign Ministers in 2006.

The first BRIC Summit was held in 2009 in the Russian Federation, and it focused on issues such as global financial architecture reform.

South Africa was invited to join BRIC in December 2010, after which the acronym BRICS was coined.

South Africa then attended the Third BRICS Summit in March 2011 in Sanya, China.

Key Initiatives:

 In 2014, the leaders signed the Agreement Establishing the New Development Bank at the Sixth BRICS Summit in Fortaleza (Brazil) (NDB headquarters – Shanghai, China).

They also signed the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement, which will provide members with short-term liquidity support.

What is the Importance of BRICS?

  • The Five Great Powers: The fact that BRICS accounts for 42 percent of the world’s population demonstrates the group’s significance.
  • 30% of the total land area
  • 24 percent of the world’s Gross Domestic Product
  • International trade accounts for 16% of total global trade.
Bridge between North and South:

The grouping has had a fairly fruitful journey. It attempted to act as a link between the Global North and the Global South.

Common Global Perspective: The BRICs advocated for multilateral institutions to be reformed in order to reflect structural changes in the global economy and the increasingly central role that emerging markets now play.

Development Cooperation: It established the New Development Bank (NDB), established a financial stability net in the form of the Contingency Reserve Arrangement, and is on the verge of establishing a Vaccine Research and Development Virtual Centre.

What is the significance of the BRICS for India?

Geopolitics: The current geopolitical environment has made it difficult for India to carve a middle path for balancing its strategic interests between the United States and the Russia-China axis.

As a result, the BRICS platform allows India to counterbalance the Russia-China axis.

Global Economic Order: The BRICS countries shared the goal of reforming the international financial and monetary system, with a strong desire to create a more just and balanced international order.

To that end, the BRICS community is a key player in the G20, shaping global economic policies and promoting financial stability.

Terrorism:

BRICS provides a platform for India to galvanise its anti-terrorism efforts.

Global Organization: India is actively seeking membership in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG).

China is a major impediment to achieving such goals.

As a result, the BRICS initiative provides an opportunity to actively engage with China and resolve mutual disputes. It also contributes to gaining the support of other partner countries.

Reforms to the Central Armed Police Forces

Why in the news?

The Government of India recently informed the Lok Sabha that nearly 1,200 paramilitary troopers committed suicide in the previous ten years.

In addition, during the Covid-19 pandemic years of 2020 and 2021, more Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) personnel committed suicide.

Domestic problems, illness, and financial problems are some of the contributing factors behind suicides, among others.

What exactly are Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs)?

There are seven CAPFs maintained by the Ministry of Home Affairs:

The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) aids in internal security and counterinsurgency operations.

The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) guards critical installations (such as airports) and public-sector enterprises.

The National Security Guards (NSG) are a counter-terrorism force.

The Border Security Force (BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB), and Assam Rifles are the four border guarding forces (AR).

What exactly are Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs)?

There are seven CAPFs maintained by the Ministry of Home Affairs:

The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) aids in internal security and counterinsurgency operations.

The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) guards critical installations (such as airports) and public-sector enterprises.

The National Security Guards (NSG) are a counter-terrorism force.

The Border Security Force (BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB), and Assam Rifles are the four border guarding forces (AR).

What are the Consequences of CAPFs?

Working Environment: In 2017, the Standing Committee on Home Affairs expressed concern about the working conditions of border guarding forces personnel.

They had to work 16-18 hours a day, with little time for rest or sleep, according to the Committee.

The medical facilities provided at border locations were also unsatisfactory to the personnel.

Furthermore, the Standing Committee found that CAPF personnel were not treated equally with the Armed Forces in terms of pay and allowances.

Impediments to Modernization:

The MHA has been working hard to provide the CAPFs with modern weapons, ammunition, and vehicles.

The Plan intends to provide financial assistance to CAPFs for modernization of arms, clothing, and equipment.

The Estimates Committee, on the other hand, found the Plan’s procurement process to be cumbersome and time consuming.

States are burdened by their responsibilities: States rely heavily on CAPFs, even for routine law and order issues.

This has an impact on anti-insurgency and border guarding operations, as well as reducing the training requirements of these forces.

Cadre Management Issue: Each of the seven has its own cadre of officers, but they are all led by Indian Police Service officers.

This has a demoralising effect on CAPF officers and has an impact on the forces’ effectiveness.

Furthermore, there was dissatisfaction in CAPFs due to promotion stagnation and a lack of cadre review.

Increased Fratricide: Since 2019, there have been more than 25 incidents of fratricide (the killing of one’s brother or sister) reported in the forces.

What is the Best Way Forward for CAPFs?

Modernizing the CAPFs: MHA should ensure that procurement bottlenecks are identified and that corrective action is taken.

Furthermore, given the evolution of hybrid warfare, training content should be a mix of traditional and cutting-edge technologies such as ICT and cyber security.

States’ Capacity: States must develop their own systems and supplement their police forces with adequate training and equipment.

The central government should supplement state governments’ efforts by providing financial assistance and other assistance that states require for capacity building of their forces.

Corrective Measures in Cadre Policy: Citing dissatisfaction with Cadre policy, the Joshi Committee recommended that top positions be filled from the CAPF’s respective cadre.

Furthermore, the Committee recommended that all CAPF cadre reviews be completed within a specific time frame.

It is imperative that these recommendations be implemented as soon as possible.

Personnel Restructuring: Workshops on stress management should be held on a regular basis, and yoga and meditation should be incorporated into CAPF personnel’s daily routine.

Furthermore, the provision of accommodation near the deployment of the respective force to allow personnel to meet their family members can be investigated.

Other’s News

Datacenter Heat Can Be Recycled

Microsoft has partnered with Fortum to heat homes, services, and businesses in Finland using sustainable waste heat generated by a new datacenter region that Microsoft plans to build in the Helsinki metropolitan area.

Data-centre

It is a physical facility used by organisations to store critical applications and data, process data, and distribute it to users.

It is built on a network of computing and storage resources that allows for the delivery of shared applications and data.

Routers, switches, firewalls, storage systems, servers, and application-delivery controllers are critical components of a datacenter.

Because datacenters consume a lot of energy, it’s critical that the physical structures that house them are well-designed and insulated in order to optimise temperature controls and energy efficiency.

Heat Generated Temperatures in a datacenter’s hot aisles range between 80 and 115 degrees Fahrenheit.

Over 75% of the electricity used in a datacenter is converted to waste heat.

In the winter, a datacenter can provide heating up to 85 degrees Fahrenheit while using less energy than a heat pump in a new home.

CO2 footprint – Datacenters consume approximately 200 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity globally, accounting for more than 1% of total global electricity consumption.

According to the International Energy Agency, they account for 0.3 percent of total global CO2 emissions.

Datacenter energy consumption in some countries could rise to 15% to 30% of total domestic electricity consumption by the end of the decade.

The heat recycling system can provide clean heat to nearby homes, businesses, and public buildings.

Once the waste heat capture system in the new data centre region is operational, climate-friendly waste heat will generate 60 percent of the area’s heating.

The datacenter region accounts for 40% of this, with the remainder coming from other waste heat sources such as purified waste water.

Heating in a district

District heating is a method of generating heat in a central location and then distributing it to buildings for residential and commercial heating needs.

The heat is delivered to customers in the form of hot water, which is delivered via insulated underground pipes.

The next generation of district heating relies on flexible solutions such as renewable electricity, heat pumps, and waste heat utilisation to replace fossil fuels.

Artificial intelligence will aid in the optimization of the entire system’s operations.

District heating is popular in the Nordic and Baltic countries, as well as Russia and China, where there is a high demand for heat during the winter.

Cold climates are ideal for datacenters. Their location in cold climates reduces the need to cool server rooms.

Other companies that use heat recycling include Facebook (Denmark), Apple (Denmark), H&M (Denmark), IBM (Switzerland), Quebecor (Canada), and others.

Hurun 2022 Global Rich List

The Hurun Global Rich List 2022, a report on the findings of the 2021 dollar millionaires, has been published.

The Hurun Report

Hurun Report is a leading research, luxury publishing, and events group founded in 1998 in London.

It is well-known throughout the world for its comprehensive assessment of the world’s wealthiest individuals.

Hurun Report is the world’s largest rich list compiler.

Findings

According to the Hurun Global Rich List 2022 report, there are 3,381 billionaires from 2,557 companies and 69 countries.

China remains first, with 1,050 billionaires owning $3,756 billion in wealth, followed by the United States, which has 523 billionaires owning $3,554 billion in wealth.

India ranked third in the world in terms of total self-made billionaires, with 119 billionaires accounting for a total wealth of $474 billion.

This year’s biggest gainers were the Gautam Adani family, Larry Page, and Sergey Brin.

India-related discoveries

The Hurun Report 2021 is a survey of 350 millionaires or those with a personal wealth of more than Rs. 7 crore.

It also predicted that the number of Indian dollar millionaires would rise by 30% by 2026, reaching six lakh households.

It revealed that the proportion of people who consider themselves to be happy in their personal and professional lives has dropped from 72 percent (2020) to 66 percent (2021).

Mumbai has the most dollar millionaires (20,300 households), followed by Delhi (17,400) and Kolkata (10,500).

At a time when calls for taxing the super-rich are growing (higher taxation advocated by Oxfam to save lives), less than one-third of those polled believed that paying taxes is a determinant of social responsibility.

Similarly, even as calls for greater philanthropic assistance grow, only 19 percent of millionaires polled by Hurun said they believe in giving back to society.

Over two-thirds of those polled said they would prefer to send their children abroad for education, with the United States topping the list, followed by the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Germany.

According to the survey, one-fourth of those on the list change their cars every three years, with Mercedes-Benz emerging as the most preferred brand.

Almost two-thirds of those polled said they own four timepieces, with Rolex being the most popular brand.

The next decade offers a significant opportunity for luxury brands and service providers to enter or strengthen their presence in India.

The percentage of dollar millionaires who use UPI for payments has more than doubled to 36%, while nearly a third of those polled are currently avoiding risks in their investments.

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