Daily Prelims Newsletter|07 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

07 July 2021-Wednesday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • King Cobra

Science and Technology

  • Malaria Disease

Economy

  • Anti-Dumping Duty

Polity and Governance

  • Office of Governor

Governmental Initiatives

  • NIPUN Bharat Programme

Environment

King Cobra

Why in News?

Recently, a king cobra was sighted in the recently declared conservation reserve, Tillari, in Maharashtra.

About King Cobra:

  • They are one of the most venomous snakes on Earth.
  • They are the longest of all venomous snakes.
  • Their venom is not the most potent among venomous snakes, however, the amount of neurotoxin they can deliver in a single biteis enough to kill 20 people, or even an elephant for that matter.
  • They are the only snakes in the world which build nests for their eggs, and guard them ferociously until the hatchlings emerge.

Habitat:

  • Rain forests and plains of India, Southern China, and Southeast Asia.
  • Alsoother habitats like forests, bamboo thickets, mangrove swamps, high-altitude grasslands, and rivers, etc.

Threats:

  • International pet trade.
  • Persecution by humans.
  • Used for skin, food, and medicinal purposes.
  • Protection Status:
    • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable.
    • CITES: Appendix II.
    • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule II.

About Tillari Conservation Reserve:

  • It is the seventh wildlife corridor in Maharashtra to be declared as a ‘conservation reserve’.
  • Itlies in Western Ghats.
  • It serves as habitat for tigers and elephants moving between the three states of Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
  • It connects Mhadei sanctuary in Goa and Bhimgad in Karnataka.
  • Forest Type:
    • Semi-evergreen forest,
    • Tropical moist deciduous forests

Science and Technology

Malaria Disease

Why in News?

China was recently declared Malaria free by WHI.

About Malaria:

  • It is a life-threatening mosquito borne blood disease.
  • It is caused by plasmodium parasites.
  • Its occurrence is mostly in the tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, South America and Asia.
  • The parasites spread with the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
  • After entering the human body, these parasites initially multiply and thrive within the liver cells. Later they attack the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) resulting in their rupture.
  • Symptoms of malaria:
    • fever,
    • Shaking chills,
    • headache,
    • muscle aches, and
  • It is bothpreventableandcurable.

  • The malaria vaccine is known as

Economy

Anti-Dumping Duty

Why in News?

Recently, the GoI has decided not to impose Anti-Dumping Duty (ADD) on imports of certain copper products, from China, Thailand, Korea and three other countries.

About Anti-Dumping Duty:

  • In international trade practices, dumping is said to occur when a country or a firm exports an item at a price lower than the price of that product in its domestic market.
  • Dumping impacts the price of that product in the importing country, negatively hitting margins and profits of local manufacturers.
  • Thus, Anti-dumping duty is imposed to rectify this situation arising out of the dumping of goods and its trade distortive effect on local economy.

NOTE: Although it is a protectionist tariff, use of anti-dumping measures as an instrument of fair competition is permitted by the WTO.

About Directorate General of Trade Remedies

  • It is the apex national authority under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • It administers all trade remedial measures likeanti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguard measures.
  • It also provides trade defence support to the domestic industries and exporters in dealing with instances of trade remedy investigations instituted against them by other countries.

Related Information:

  • Countervailing Duties (CVDs) are tariffs levied on imported goods in order to offset subsidies made to producers and exporters of these goods in the exporting country.
  • CVDs aim to level the playing field between domestic and foreign producers of the product.

Polity and Governance

Office of Governor

Recently, 8 states got their new Governors.

Related Information about office of Governor:

  • Governor is the nominal executive head of the state.
  • The President of India appoints Governor for each state by warrant under his hand and seal. Govt. of India is responsible to nominate the governor for each state.
  • According to a Supreme Court ruling, the office of governor is not part of the union executive and it is an independent constitutional office.
  • Thus,the governor neither serves the union government, and nor is subordinate to it.
  • This mode of appointment of state governor by the centre is inspired from the Canadian model of government.
  • The governor holds office for a term of 5 years, subject to pleasure of the president.
  • Thus practically, his office has no fixed term.
  • The grounds on which a governor can be removed from office are not laid down in the constitution.
  • Governor can also be reappointed.
  • Constitutional qualifications to be a Governor:
    • Citizen of India
    • 35 years or older.
  • Governorhas immunity from any criminal proceedings, even with respect to his personal acts.
  • He cannot be arrested or imprisoned.
  • Only civil proceedings can be initiated against him for his personal acts that too after giving two months of prior notice.

Governmental Initiatives

NIPUN Bharat Programme

Context:

Recently, Union Education Minister launched the NIPUN Bharat Programme.

About NIPUN Bharat Programme:

  • It stands for National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy.
  • It is an initiative of the Ministry of Education.
  • Implementing Agency: Department of School Education and Literacy.
  • The programme aims to ensure that every child in the country attains foundational literacy and numeracy by the end of Grade 3.
  • It will be coveringlearning needs of children in the age group of 3 to 9 years.

Focus areas:

  • Development of physical and motor skills development
  • Socio-emotional development,
  • Literacy and numeracy development,
  • cognitive development, etc.
  • It will envision to support students, schools, teachers, parents, and communities, to help realise the true potential of children.

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