Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|17 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

17 June 2021-Thrusday

Table Of Contents


  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 

Polity and Governance 

  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act
  • Sixth Schedule areas

Governmental Initiatives

  • UDAN Scheme 

International Relations 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  • OPEC+ 


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

Why in News?

High-Level Dialogue on Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought (DLDD) was convened recently with the support of UNCCD to assess the progress made in fighting land degradation.

About UNCCD:

  • It was established in 1994.
  • It is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development with the sustainable land management.
  • It was an organisation setup by recommendation of theRio Conference’s Agenda 21.
  • Focus areas: It addresses specifically the arid, semiarid and dry sub-humid areas, called as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and populationis found.
  • Aim: To implement the Convention and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with the end goal to protect land from over-use and drought, so that it can continue to provide food, water, energy, and other necessities.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, GoI is the nodal Ministry for this Convention.

Polity and Governance

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act

Why in News?

Delhi High Court recently in a judgment defined the contours of the otherwise vague provisions of the UAPA, and laid down some important principles upon the imposition of Section under the Act.

About UAPA, 1967:

  • The law aims at effective prevention of unlawful activities’ associations in India.
  • The Act gives absolute power to the central government, i.e., centre can deem an activity as unlawful by way of declaration through an Official Gazette.
  • It has provisions for death penalty and life imprisonment as highest punishments.
  • Under provisions of UAPA, both Indian and foreign nationals can be charged.
  • It is applicable to the offenders in the same way, even if crime is committed on a foreign land outside India.
  • Subsequent Amendments’ to UAPA:
  • The 2004 amendment added Terrorist act to the list of offences for purpose of banning organisations engaged in terrorist activities.
  • The 2019 Amendment empowered central govt. to designate even individuals as terrorists on certain grounds provided in the Act.
  • The Act also empowers the Director General of National Investigation Agency (NIA) to grant approval of seizure or attachment of property when the case is investigated by NIA.
  • The Act also empowers the officers of the NIA, of Inspector rank or above, to investigate cases of terrorism in addition to those conducted by the DSP/ACP or above rank officer in the state.

    Sixth Schedule areas:

    Why in News?

    Tribal minister recently wrote a letter to Union home minister demanding to place the Constitution (125thAmendment) Bill, 2019 in the floor of Parliament which would empower the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.

    About Sixth Schedule Areas:

    • The provision of Sixth Scheduled Areas was brought to protect tribal population and provide autonomy to these communities through creation of autonomous development councils.
    • The ADCs can frame laws on land, public health, agriculture and others.
    • Presently, 10 autonomous councils exist in states ofAssam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
    • This special provision is provided under Article 244(2) and Article 275(1) of the Constitution of India.

    Key takeaways:

    • The Governor is empowered to organise and re-organise these ADCs.
    • If there are different tribes in an autonomous district, the governor is empowered to divide the district into several autonomous regions.
    • ADCs are composed of 30 members, of whom:
      • four are nominated by the governor and the
      • remaining 26 are elected on the basis ofadult franchise.
    • Term in office:
      • The elected members hold office for a period of five years (unless the council is dissolved earlier)
      • Nominated members hold office during the pleasure of the governor.
    • Each autonomous region also has a separate regional council.

    Power of ADCs:

    • The district and regional councils are empowered to administer the areas under their jurisdiction.
    • They can make laws on specified matters like
      • land,
      • forests,
      • canal water,
      • shifting cultivation,
      • village administration,
      • inheritance of property,
      • marriage and divorce, etc.
    • But all laws soc created require the assent of the governor.
    • Village councils: The district and regional councils within their territorial jurisdictions is empowered to constitute village councilse.,court for trial of suits and cases between the tribes.
    • The jurisdiction of high court over such suits and cases is as specified by the governor.

      Governmental Initiatives

      UDAN Scheme

      Why in News?

      The Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways and the Ministry of Civil Aviation(under UDAN Scheme) signed MoU todevelop Seaplane Services in India.

      About UDAN 4.1:

      • It focusses on connecting smaller airports, special helicopter services and seaplane routes.
      • In consonance with Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways, it will also contribute to Sagarmala Seaplane Services
      • Seaplane route between Kevadia and Sabarmati Riverfront in Ahmedabad is an example of Sagarmala Seaplane Services project.

      About UDAN Scheme:

      • UdeDesh ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN) scheme was launched to boostregional connectivity in 2016.
      • It is under the Ministry of Civil Aviation.
      • It aims to create affordable but economically viable and profitable flights on regional routes so that flying is within reach of common man even in small towns.
      • The scheme also envisages creating connectivity servicesin theun-served and underserved airports of the country by the revival of existing air-strips and airports.
      • Financial incentives are to be provided from the Centre, state governments and airport operators to selected airlines to encourage operations from such airports, and also to keep airfares affordable.

      International Relations

      Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

      Why in News?

      Recently,42ndsession of the FAO’s Conference was held recently.

      About FAO:

      • It is one of thespecialized agencies of the United Nations which leads international efforts to defeat worldwide hunger.
      • World Food Day is celebrated every year across the world on 16thOctoberto mark the anniversary of the founding of the FAO in 1945.
      • India also released a commemorative coin of ₹ 75 denomination to mark the 75th Anniversary of the FAO.
      • It is headquartered in Rome.
      • Its sister bodies are the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

      Key Initiatives of FAO:

      • Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS).
      • It monitors the Desert Locust situation throughout the world.

      Flagship Publications:

      • The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture.
      • The State of the World’s Forests.
      • The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World.
      • The State of Food and Agriculture.
      • The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets.


      Why in News?

      OPEC+ Countries are slowing pushing up the production of crude oil, which may reduce oil prices in the country.

      About OPEC

      • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created afterafter Baghdad Conference, 1960
      • Five founding countries: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
      • It is a permanent intergovernmental organizationto co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among member nations.
      • Headquarter: Vienna, Austria.
      • OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and shares the ideals of the organization.
      • Currently, OPEC has a total of 14 Member Countries.


      • The non-OPEC countries which export crude oil are includedinOPEC plus
      • Notable OPEC plus countries: Malaysia, Oman, Russia.


      • USA is not part of OPEC+.
      • Oman is not part of OPEC but part of OPEC+.

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