Confucius proposed a system of social and political philosophy. The teachings of Confucius are focused on two
Social Teachings which deal with the proper behaviour of an individual in the society and with his fellow
Political teachings that deal with the art of governance and the proper relationship of the ruler to the
ruled. He viewed education as central to achieving proper conduct both within society and in the
Relevance in the present scenario:
• Confucius taught that people should have compassion for one another, and to avoid treating others in ways that
they themselves would not wish to be treated. In order to be compassionate, people should avoid selfaggrandizement
and be “simple in manner and slow of speech”. They should practice altruism and self-restraint.
This teaching is relevant today as due to fast pace of economic growth and globalization, the inherent cultural
values and virtues are deteriorating. The enmity among people are increasing which has in turn led to rise of crimes
in the society. The need of developing an idea of common good is felt.
• Confucius political beliefs were based on the concept of self-discipline. He believed that a leader needed to
exercise self-discipline in order to remain humble and treat his followers with compassion. In doing so, he would
lead by positive example, i.e., leaders could motivate their subjects to follow the law by teaching them virtue and
the unifying force of ritual propriety. This teaching is equally relevant in present scenario as the ethical values such
as integrity, empathy, dedication, justice are decreasing in all the government pillars – executive, legislature and
judiciary which in turn leading to rise of nepotism, corruption and loss of trust of people in the government. Hence,
Confucius believes in development of political virtue for a better public life.