1. Q.)In 1875, which indoor game was discovered in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh by British Army Officer Colonel Neville Chamberlain?
Explanation (b) Snooker is a cue sport (cue-a long stick) played on a rectangular table covered with a green cloth, or baize. In the Year 1875, ‘Snooker’ is believed to have been discovered in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, by the British Army Officer Colonel Neville Chamberlain, which is an “Indoor sport”.
COMMENT– The word snooker was a long-used mili tary term for inexperienced or first-Year personnel. When Colonel Sir Neville Chamberlain of the Devonshire Regiment was playing this new game So, his opponent failed to pocket a ball by aiming and Chamberlain called it a snooker. The name snooker comes from a comment Chamberlain made about a player who missed a shot. He called him “a real snooker”, referring to his lack of experience, “snooker” being a slang term for a first Year cadet. The name thus became associated with the game of billiards in which inexperienced players were called snookers.
Remark: Difference between billiards and snooker – Billiards are played with three balls while snooker is played with 15 red, 6 coloured, and 1 cue ball i.e. 22 balls.
2. Q.) Which player of Madhya Pradesh died in a police encounter?
Explanation (c) Paan Singh Tomar was an Indian soldier, athlete, and baaghi (rebel). He served in the Indian Army, where his talent for running was discovered. He was a seven-time national steeplechase champion in the 1950s and 1960s, and represented India at the Asian Games. After a premature retirement from the army, Tomar returned to his native village. He later gained notoriety as a Chambal Valley Rebel when he resorted to violence after a land feud there. In late 1981, Tomar lost his life in a shootout with hundreds of armed members of a police task force sent to capture him.
Note: In 1981, Pan Singh’s brother was killed in a police encounter, in return, Pan Singh killed six people of Gurjara community. Due to this incident, there was a stir in the politics of Madhya Pradesh. After this, Paan Singh directly challenged the then Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, Arjun Singh. Chief Minister Arjun Singh ordered Paan Singh to be caught alive or dead, After this, the people of Pan Singh’s village were lured to capture Pan Singh by luring them to the job and on October 1, 1981, a force of around 10,000 soldiers surrounded and killed Pan Singh.
Explanation (c) The national sport of Madhya Pradesh is Malkhamb, which has been declared a state game by the Government of Madhya Pradesh on April 10, 2013. The players of this game are awarded the Prabhas Joshi Award.
COMMENT– Malkhamb is a traditional game in India in which players perform various tricks on a wooden pillar or rope. The word Mallakhamb also refers to the pole used in the sport. It ensures the exercise of every part of the body in the shortest time.
Remark: For seven centuries, the art lay dormant, until it was revived by Balambhatta Dada Deodhar, the sports and fitness instructor to Peshwa Bajirao II, who reigned during the first half of the 19th century. Competitive Mallakhamb at the national level first made its appearance at the National Gymnastics Championships held at the Pahadganj Stadium, Dehli, India, in the Year 1958.
Note: ‘Malla’ means gymnast, and “khamb’ means pole. Thus, the name ‘Mallakhamb’ stands for ‘a gymnast’s pole’.
4. Q.)Which type of Malkhamb, the State game of Madhya Pradesh, is mainly played by women?
Explanation (c) Malkhamb, the national game of Madhya Pradesh, is a traditional game in India, in which players perform various tricks on a wooden pole or tope. At present, the following forms of Mallakhamb are prevalent: Plain Mallakhamb-fixed on the ground (for men only) In this, a vertical wooden pole is fixed in the ground. The wood used is usually teakwood or shee shum, preferred because of its twin characteristics of toughness and smoothness. The pole stands 225 cm above ground level. It has a circumference of 55 cm at its lower end, 45 cm in the middle, and 30 cm at the upper end. The height of the neck is 20 cm, and its circumference is 15 cm, and radius of the upper knobe is 13 cm.Hanging Mallakhamb (for men only) A smaller version of the fixed Mallakhamb, it is suspended with the aid of hooks and chains. The swinging and revolving motion of this type of Mallakhamb renders the exercises quite difficult and exacting. Cane or Rope Mallakhamb Here, a cotton rope. which is 2.5 cm thick, replaces the wooden pole. The performers are expected to strike various yogic poses, without knotting the rope in any way.
5. Q.)In which of the following districts, the Malkhamb Centre has been opened for the State Sports Malkhamb of Madhya Pradesh?
Explanation (d) Malkhamb, which is known as Mallayuddha in ancient times. 14 Malkhamb centres in Madhya Pradesh are operated in Indore, Khargone, Ujjain, Betul, Datia, Panna, Ratlam, Shajapur, Shivpuri, Gwalior, Tikamgarh, Jabalpur, Chhatarpur and Sagar.
COMMENT-Mallayuddha is the traditional form of combat wrestling originating from the Indian subcontinent. It was also prevalent in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It is closely related to Southeast Asian wrestling styles such as naban and is the ancestor of kusti. Indian wrestling is described in the 13th century Malla Purana. Malla-yuddha is divided into four categories (see below). Each yuddhan is named after Hindu gods and legendary fighters:
Hanumanti concentrates on technical superiority, Jambuvanti uses locks and holds to force the opponent into submission,Jarasandhi concentrates on breaking the limbs andjoints while Bhimaseni focuses on sheer strength.This is the ancient form of wrestling. There aretwo main types of it. Dharnipatt and Asura. InDharnipatt, the opposition has to fall on the back of the earth.
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