DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC|08 JULY 2021|RaghukulCS

Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

08 July 2021 - Thrusday

Index

Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name

Source

1

Challenging negative social norms

The Hindu

2

China’s century of becoming

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

Health start-ups providing innovative solutions

Syllabus–GS 2: Health

Analysis: –

  • Health start-ups coming up in Rajasthan during the COVID-19 pandemic have provided some innovative solutions to overcome the crisis amid the virus infection putting an excessive burden on the public health infrastructure.
  • The start-ups have kicked off with the new concepts of hybrid pharmacy and diagnostics.
  • Supported by a health research institution, the start-ups have conducted research and made intelligent planning with an out-of-box thinking to provide succour to those affected by the second wave of pandemic as well as other other patients whose health needs constant monitoring.
  • The institution provided orientation to several of the entrepreneurs who launched the new units.
  • A women’s entrepreneurship development programme launched by the CIIE has helped out women entrepreneurs to take up the startup projects with profitable outcomes.

Challenging negative social norms

Syllabus – GS 3: Conservation of Environment

Analysis: –

  • In these troubled times of the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Population Day on July 11 brings some positive news — India has entered a demographic sweet spot that will continue for another two to three decades.
  • Half of India’s population is under 29 years of age, which means that in this period, a greater proportion of young people will drive India’s economic growth and social progress.
  • So, they must not only be healthy, knowledgeable and skilled but must also be provided with the rights and choices to develop to their fullest potential, including, and especially, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).
  • The Guttmacher–Lancet Commission (Starrs et al, 2018) in looking at how to improve SRHR in populations formulated a comprehensive definition of SRHR that encompasses a broader range of issues.
  • These include SRHR and issues such as violence, stigma and respect for bodily autonomy, which greatly impact the psychological, emotional and social well-being of individuals.

Mains Analysis

Challenging negative social norms

Why in News?

In these troubled times of the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Population Day on July 11 brings some positive news — India has entered a demographic sweet spot that will continue for another two to three decades.

Syllabus— GS 1 Society

  • India has reached a demographic tipping point that will last for the next two to three decades.
  • Half of India’s population is under the age of 29, implying that a bigger number of young people will drive India’s economic growth and social improvement during this decade.
  • In looking at how to improve sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in populations, the Guttmacher–Lancet Commission created a comprehensive definition of SRHR that incorporates a broader variety of challenges.
  • These include SRHR as well as issues such as violence, stigma, and respect for bodily autonomy, all of which have a significant impact on people’s psychological, emotional, and social well-being.

 Developmental Goals –

  • India’s population growth is now stabilising. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR), presently at 2.2 children, will soon reach replacement level (2.1).
  • One of the most difficult issues India faces in meeting the requirements of the next generation is changing social standards.
  • For example, India’s population stabilisation policy must be altered to account for women’s and girls’ rights.
  • Women must have a bigger say in deciding the size of their family.
  • The COVID-19 epidemic has exposed flaws in healthcare systems, resulting in significant gaps and obstacles in the provision of sexual and reproductive health information and services (SRH).
  • Even before the epidemic, widespread unfavourable social norms, health-care system hurdles, and gender disparities hampered universal access to SRHR, as envisioned in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development’s Programme of Action (ICPD).
  • The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) India recognises that, despite the fact that health systems are obviously pressured, the provision of essential services cannot be delayed.
  • India has made significant progress in terms of SRH indicators during the last two decades. Improved rates of institutional delivery and a decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from 327 per 100,000 live births in 1999-2001 to 113 per 100,000 live births in 2016-18 have resulted from progressive maternal health initiatives.
  • The present government has made some efforts to disrupt old social conventions, with programmes such as Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP), and has emphasised that investments in social issues must go hand in hand with economic success.
  • The UNFPA is eager to build on India’s successes and strengthen South-South cooperation.

 Challenges –

  • Every year, two million adolescent females (15-19 years) become pregnant, with almost 63 percent of these pregnancies being unplanned or unexpected (Guttmacher Institute, 2021).
  • This indicates that this age group lacks proper information and access to SRH services.
  • Girls are still being married at an early age.
  • Gender-based violence and socially sanctioned harmful practises affect far too many girls and women.
  • All of these behaviours stem from social conventions, attitudes, and practises that deny women bodily autonomy.
  • India is the third-worst performer in South Asia in The World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Gender Gap Report (2021).

Way Forward

  • As a result, India must carefully choose its priorities. Our research suggests that putting youth, women, and girls at the centre of policymaking and service delivery could have a favourable impact.
  • If young people, particularly adolescent girls, have access to education, relevant skills, information, and services to make healthy choices, including those related to SRH, are empowered to exercise their rights, and have access to job opportunities, India will be well on its way to achieving its objectives.
  • Controlling one’s body benefits a woman not just in terms of autonomy, but also in terms of health, education, money, and safety. Her family, as well as she, has a better chance of thriving.

Question: –

Societies are healthier and more productive when women can make educated decisions about their sexual and reproductive health and have access to resources that support those decisions.Comment.

China’s century of becoming

Why in News?

Ashish Kothari writes: It must re-examine the unsustainable and inequitable ways in which power is produced and distributed.

Syllabus—GS3: Energy Conservation

Background: –

  • Recently the India-US Climate & Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership was launched at the Leaders’ Summit on Climate by US Prez.
  • According to it, The USA has set an economy-wide target of reducing its net greenhouse gas emissions by 50-52% below 2005 levels in 2030.
  • India has set a target of installing 450GW of renewable energy by 2030.
  • The partnership will aim to mobilize finance & clean energy deployment.
  • Demonstrate & scale innovative clean technologies needed to decarbonize polluting sectors.
  • Build capacity to measure, manage & adapt to the risk of climate-related impacts.
  • G7 countries also announcing net zero carbon targets which hide the continued reliance on disruptive technologies in the pursuit of ever-increasing energy generation.

India’s flaws in this regard:

  • The rapid increase in renewable energy capacity & partnerships like the ISA have won appreciation but have four hidden flaws.
  • While substantially increasing RE, India is also expanding fossil fuel extraction & use.
  • Indian govt has auctioned new coal blocks & new thermal power stations that increase the total carbon emissions even while RE’s share rises.
  • Without any govt, serious targets, the decarbonizing of sectors mentioned could not reduce emissions.
  • India includes mega-hydropower in RE, despite the ecological & social havoc it causes.
  • Even the RE production parks have serious ecological & social impacts but do not even need an environmental impact assessment.
  • The govt’s target of 100 GW by 20200 also included 40GW of rooftop solar, but poor policy backup has stymied it.
  • Any amount of electricity demand is legitimate to be met in all possible ways.
  •  A shift from petro-diesel to electric cars would significantly expand devastating mining across the world.
  • Unless luxury & wasteful consumption is eliminated, unsustainability & people’s displacement are inevitable.
  • People who protect the forcible acquisition for mega-projects are labeled anti-development.
  • The unequal colonial relationship that converts relatively self-reliant communicate into cheap labour & does little to help them adapt to climate crisis impacts.

Way-forward:

  • Viable alternatives have been demonstrated across the world.
  • The Delhi govt is supporting govt schools to generate rooftop solar energy.
  • Integrated power micro-grids can provide adequate power for entire village & urban neighborhoods.
  • Alternatives to energy-guzzling sectors & privatized transportation exist.
  • A sensitive architecture & demand for regulation. can dramatically reduce electricity use.
  • Consumer behavior that uses wasteful & luxury power can be changed & regulated & power redistributed.
  • All this should be part of the National Energy Policy & people’s mobilization will be crucial in this regard.
  • While everyone has the right to the energy need for well-being but demanding more & more will lead to unsustainability & inequitablility.
  • Without us sustaining the earth, the planet will not sustain us. It is high time for India to the true nature of global leadership.

Question: –

The unequal colonial relationship between the North and the South is replicated in internal colonisation when the government grabs land, forests, and water, converts relatively self-reliant communities into cheap labour and does little to help them adapt to climate crisis impacts.Comment.

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