Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

15 July 2021 - Thrusday


Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name



People’s voice and Kashmir’s future

The Hindu


A Plan without people

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

‘Excess deaths’ in Haryana seven times official COVID-19 toll.

Syllabus–GS 2: Health

Analysis: –

  • The number of “excess deaths” registered by the Civil Registration System (CRS) in Haryana ever since the COVID-19 pandemic hit (from April 2020 to May 2021) was 60,397, which is 7.3 times the official reported figure of 8,303 COVID-19 deaths for the same period.
  • This high number was largely due to the deaths registered in April 2021 (28,276) and May 2021(46,108).
  • In this period which coincided with the second wave, the excess deaths were around 46,283, compared with the registered COVID-19 tally of 5,148, leading to an undercount factor of 9. The overall tally in Haryana, as of July 12, is 9,556.
  • The excess deaths were calculated based on the month-wise number of deaths registered in the online CRS from January 2018 to May 2021, which was accessed by The Hindu. Not all excess deaths would be related to COVID-19 but a bulk of them are, during the pandemic.
  • The mortality figures registered online for 2018 and 2019 — 1,85,842 and 1,88,910 — were 96.1% and 97.3% of the deaths mentioned in the annual reports on “Vital Statistics in India based on CRS” 2018 and 2019 respectively.
  • The undercount factor (7.3) and the excess deaths for Haryana (60,397) were lower compared with those from Madhya Pradesh (23.8 and 1,92,044) in the same period and for which complete data have been made available so far.
  • Excess deaths have also been estimated for Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Gujarat but these figures are only partial, either for some districts (U.P.) or for a limited period (Bihar and Gujarat) or only a smaller portion registered online (Rajasthan).
  • The excess deaths calculated in Haryana were based on the mortality figures registered online.
  • According to the Civil Registration System report for 2019, Haryana registered 100% of all deaths in the State, much of it online. Excess deaths might go up as late registrations are tallied in the State.

Court fines Delhi Police ₹25,000 for ‘farcical’ probe into riots case

Syllabus— GS 2: Health

Analysis: –

  • A local court here has imposed a cost of ₹25,000 on the Delhi police while questioning the fairness of the probe conducted into a case of a man who suffered a gunshot injury in his left eye during the north-east Delhi riots in February last year.
  • Additional Sessions Judge Vinod Yadav censured Delhi Police for resisting registration of an FIR based on the complaint of the victim, Mohammad Nasir, a resident of North Ghonda in Delhi.
  • “It is clearly evident that defence for the accused persons named in the complaint of respondent has been sought to be created by the police,” the judge remarked while dismissing Delhi police’s appeal against an October 21, 2020, order of a trial court here directing registration of an FIR.

Mains Analysis

People’s voice and Kashmir’s future

Why in News?

National Conference president Farooq Abdullah and vice-president Omar Abdullah interact with the media in Srinagar June 26, 2021 on their arrival from New Delhi after attending an all-party meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Syllabus— GS 2 Federation

Repealing of Article 370 –

  • On February 28, 1966, a rebellion erupted in Mizoram. The Mizo National Front (MNF), commanded by Laldenga, launched an armed uprising the next day and declared independence. The Mizoram Accord was signed on June 30, 1986.
  • “Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, no Act of Parliament shall apply to the State of Mizoram in respect of (a) Mizo religion or social practises,

(b) Mizo customary law or procedure,

(c) Administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions based on Mizo customary law,

(d) Ownership and transfer of land, unless the Legislative Assembly of Mizoram has approved it.

  • On February 20, 1987, the 53rd Constitution Amendment came into force inserting Article 371G.
  • Article 370 is on a more solid foundation. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his deputy, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, held parleys to provide legal substance to an agreement between the Union and a State of the Union.
  • They began on May 15, 1949, at Patel’s home and ended in mid-October with an agreed-upon text. In the absence of Sheikh Abdullah, who happened to be in the lobby, it was moved in a modified version in the Constituent Assembly on October 17, 1949 by N. GopalaswamiAyyangar.Kashmir received 94 of the 97 entries in the Central List, leaving three entries unapplied.
  • So much for the so-called “unique status.” Nagaland, Assam, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Goa all have ‘special’ provisions in the Constitution (Article 371A-1). A Sadr-E-Riyasat was elected in Kashmir.
  • He was replaced by a Governor appointed by the Centre.

 Practice of Dealing with area of special status –

  • Areas of ‘special status’ abound the world over.
  • Scotland joined England in 1707 to form Great Britain. It held a referendum on its independence without its being called ‘treason’.
  • Quebec held two referenda on secession in 1980 and 1995. All three failed.
  • The Supreme Court’s track record on Kashmir is dreadful. The issue has become overly politicised.
  • In favour of a political, peaceful, and constitutional approach, the petitions must be withdrawn.On July 9, 1953, Maulana Azad offered Sheikh Abdullah that the Indian government was willing to proclaim that Kashmir’s special status would be made permanent without limitations.
  • “If such a proclamation had been made earlier, it would have strengthened my hands,” Abdullah responded on July 16. “If I don’t acquire the confidence of my people here, I won’t be able to serve my friends,” he says now.
  • People are more important now than they were in 1953. Statesmanship entails devising a solution that is agreeable to both parties.

Way Forward: –

  • The Delimitation Commission came to Kashmir to carry out the BJP’s Vision Document’s vision of additional seats for Jammu.
  • Farooq Abdullah, Mehbooba Mufti, and Mirwaiz Mohammad Umar Farooq’s statesmanship will determine a lot.
  • Their goals should be twofold: work to restore Kashmir’s identity and pride, and assist in the completion of the four-point formula developed by former Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf.
  • Because it neglected Kashmiri sentiments, the all-party summit collapsed.

 Question: –

Discuss the political, social and economic implications of repealing Article 370 on Jammu Kashmir and Ladakh.

A Plan without people

Why in News?

Fahad Zuberi writes: The Delhi Master Plan, 2041 – traditionally illiberal enough – has been made more authoritarian, superciliously detached, and imposed on the people of Delhi by the GNCTD Act

Syllabus—GS2: Issues related to Public Policies

Background: –

  • The recently released Draft Delhi Master Plan 2041by Delhi Development Authority has invited comments & objections from the general public.
  • The draft Master Plan is the repetition of the objectives stated in the 2021 Master Plan.
  • However, this Master Plan accorded significance as it is the first plan since the passing of the GNCTD Act 2021 & dissect the impact that the Act shall have on the City’s urban development.

History of DDA & Delhi’s Development:

  • For several decades, in regards to the vision of urban planning, the system of governance in Delhi is unambiguously under the Union govt.
  • The DDA was established through the Delhi Development Act 1957 which has been a body under Housing & Urban Affairs Ministry.
  • The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi (LG) is also the chairman of the DDA & exercises executive powers including the right to regulatory overwrite in the Authority.
  • DDA also has representatives from Delhi’s municipal corporations & legislative assembly. However, their role is mere advisory in the Authority’s functioning.
  • It is noteworthy that the 69th CAA 1991, gave Delhi its legislative assembly with powers over state list except Land, Police & Law & Order)
  • However, the Delhi govt under its control has the Delhi Jal Board, the Urban Development Department & the Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board to govern the day-to-day issues of the mega-city & deal with Housing, Environment, Urban development & Road Transport issues.
  • Delhi has 3 elected municipal corporations at the level of local governance besides the Centre appointed NDMC that operates in its designated region.

The Harmony between Power Structures- Delhi’s Fate:

  • It is important to understand the above structure of Delhi governance vis-à-vis the subject of urban development.
  • While the metropolis planning vision is formulated under the Union, the urban development issues at the local levels are addresses by elected representatives.
  • Therefore, the fate of Delhi over the decades must have determined by the degree of harmony between these two power structures.
  • A comparatively cooperative relationship between past central govts & past Delhi govts had yielded several benefits for the Delhi public such as:
  • Development of robust public transport network through the Delhi Metro, Up-gradation of Delhi Transport Corporation & Construction of many roads etc.
  • However, the increasing friction between current regimes of State & Centre has harmed the city.
  • For instance, the Delhi legislative assembly passed the Urban Shelter Improvement Board Amend bill was returned by the Centre without assent.
  • The bill sought to extend the deadline for slums eligible for rehabilitation, to cover the clusters that have come up since 2002 & to implement their rehabilitation to meet Delhi Master Plan 2021 vision.
  • This is a major setback for the cities 49% slum population & the 2021 Master plan that is envisioned to solve the housing crisis of the city.

The GNCTD Act 2021- Delhi Master Plan 2041 linkage:

  • The act clarifies that or any law passed by the state legislative assembly. The term government shall mean the LG.
  • In the Urban development aspect, this means that state govt & local governance bodies that already had limited powers in the city development, lose their significance in the formulation of the Master Plan & also to address urban development issues of Delhi.
  • Additionally, the Act also empowers the LG with executive action over the day-to-day matters of the NCT & prohibits the state assembly from making any rules to consider these matters or to inquire into them.
  • In simple language, this means that Delhi state bodies & people cannot have any say in the matters of development of their surroundings.
  • For several decades Delhi’s citizens & stakeholders indeed had a negligible role in urban planning but in local matters such as water supply & sanitation etc. elected representatives have been important stakeholders.
  • However, the GNCTD Act amputates this very important arm of urban development at the micro-level.
  • Finally, the Act makes it mandatory for the LG to reserve bills for the Prez that cover matters outside the purview of the state govt.
  • Among them, Land is the important subject matter reserved.
  • By reserving such matters for the Prez, the Act not only grants unchallenged power to the Centre over the city’s urban issues but also means there will be major delays in execution of the Master Plans vision which will result in conflict between two govts.

The history of Urban Planning in India:

  • The current Master Plan lack of nuance is nothing new. Historically India’s urban planning remained aloof to local contexts & needs.
  • It has been following a top-down approach rooted in the Town & Country Planning Act 1947 of the UK, which uses Land-use zoning criteria to plan cities & everything else.
  • The same has been the basis for past Delhi’s Master Plans & even the 2041 Plan follows the same.
  • However many countries including the UK have abandoned the land use method due to its failure to reap outcomes.
  • Also, many Scholars have observed that the top-down approach has left economically weaker sections & local stakeholders out of the planning process.

Way Forward: –

  • Many scholars suggested more flexible ways of planning that acknowledge the forces of the market & local governance & let financial planning & local context decide the scale & location of various zones with the state playing the role of a facilitator of infra rather than the dictator of land-use.
  • The need is to augment the capacity both at the local govt level to envision & prepare a development plan & at the state govt level to provide legislative & administrative support & an enabling environment for facilitating the process of planning at the local & regional level.
  • The crucial issue that Delhi facing today needs a localized & contextual formulation & implementation of plans & not a top-down approach that has already failed for many years.

Question: –

As the GNCTD Act, centralizes the governance in Delhi completely & the Delhi Master Plan 2041is the most authoritarian plan since independence. The need of the hour is for the govt to have a more flexible & bottom-up approach by effectively accommodating local bodies & key stakeholders of Delhi in the decision making. Illustrate.

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