Daily Prelims Newsletter|08 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

08 July 2021-Thrusday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Mangroves

Polity and Governance

  • Legislative Council
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

Governmental Initiatives

  • Namami Gange Programme

Environment

Mangroves

Why in News?

Several masks, PPE kits, syringes etc were found to be dumped in Mangroves near Mumbai.

About Mangroves:

  • They occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between 30° N and 30° S latitudes. The greatest mangrove area is between 5° latitudes of the equator.
  • It is a shrub or small tree which grows in coastal areas- either saline or brackish water.
  • They are salt-tolerant trees, hence called halophytes, and are adapted to live even in the harsh coastal conditions.
  • They contain complex salt filtration system and complex roots to cope with saltwater immersion and wave action.
  • Their roots help these trees to respire in anaerobic soils.
  • The seeds of Mangrove Forests trees germinate in the trees itself before falling on ground– called Viviparity mode of reproduction.

Importance of Mangroves:

  • Mangrove roots help to impede salt water intrusion in the lands, and thereby enhance the deposition of sediment in areas, stabilise the coastal shores and provide a breeding ground for fishes.
  • Prevent coastal soil erosion.
  • Protect coastal lands from tsunami, hurricanes, and floods.
  • Support numerous flora, fauna and wildlife.
  • Provide favourable environment for breeding, spawning, rearing of fishes.


Regions where mangroves are naturally found in India:

Polity and Governance

Legislative Council

Why in News?

Recently, the West BengalLegislative Assembly has passed a resolution to set up a Legislative Council in the state with two-thirds majority.

About Legislative Council (LC):

  • Process of setting up LC:
    • Passing Resolution to this effect by the Legislative Assembly by a special majority,
    • Then a nod from the Governor is required.
  • Presently Six States have a Legislative Council:Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka.

Article 169- Creation and Abolition of LC:

  • The Parliament can abolish a LC (where it already exists) or create it (where it does not exist) by passing a resolution by simple majority, (a majority of the members of each House present and voting) if the legislative assembly of the concerned state, by a special majority, passes a resolution to thiseffect
  • Special majority denotes:
    • A majority of the total membership of the assembly and
    • A majority of not less than two-third of the members of the assembly present and voting.
  • Composition of LC:
  • Under Art. 171 of the Constitution, the LC of any state shall not havemore thanone-third of the total strength of the State Legislative Assembly, and not less than 40 members.
  • Similar to the Rajya Sabha, the LC is a continuing chamber, hence, is a permanent body not subject to dissolution.
  • The tenure of a Member of the Legislative Council (MLC) is six years, with one-third of the members retiring every two years.

Comparative Study of LC and Rajya Sabha:

  • The legislative power of the Councils are very limited and is thus considered a secondary house of state legislature. While Rajya Sabha has substantial powers to shape non-financial legislation, LC lacks such powers.
  • State Assemblies can override suggestions/amendments made to legislation by the LC.
  • Unlike Rajya Sabha MPs, MLCs cannot vote in the Presidential and Vice-Presidential elections.
  • The Vice President becomes the Rajya Sabha Chairperson while a member from the LC itself is chosen as the Council Chairperson.

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

Why in News?

CBI was in news recently due to a fire which boke out in CBI office.

About CBI:

  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating police agency in India and functions under the administrative superintendence of the of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances.
  • This ministry is directly under PMO.
  • For investigations of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, its superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.
  • It is the nodal police agency in India to coordinate the investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
  • It is a non-statutory body deriving its power from Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, 1946.
  • Types of Cases Handled by the CBI:
    • Anti-Corruption Crimes – Under the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA)
    • Economic Crimes – for investigation of major financial scams and serious economic frauds.
    • Special Crimes – for investigation of serious and organized crime under the Indian Penal Code and other laws on the requests of State Governments or on the orders of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
    • Suo Moto Casesonly in the Union Territories.

Other Takeaways:

  • The GoI can authorize CBI to investigate a crime in anystate only with the consent of the concerned State Government.
  • The Supreme Court and High Courts can order CBI investigation in a crime anywhere in the countryeven without the consent of the State.
  • The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964).

Director of CBI:

  • Till 2014, the Director of CBI was appointed on the basis of the DSPE Act, 1946.
  • The Lokpal Act, 2014 provided a committee for appointment of CBI Director:
    • Headed by Prime Minister
    • Leader of Opposition/ Leader of the single largest opposition party,
    • Chief Justice of India/ a Supreme Court Judge.
  • Director of CBI is provided security of two-year tenure, under the CVC Act, 2003.

Governmental Initiatives

NamamiGange Programme

Why in News?

Recently, National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) has released a policy document on the conservation of river Ganga.

About NamamiGange Programme:

  • Namami Gange Programme is a Flagship Programme of GoIlaunched in June 2014 to accomplish the twin objectives of
    • effective abatement of pollution and conservation,
    • Rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
  • It is being under the Department of Water Resources, Ministry of Jal Shakti, GoI.
  • The programme is being implemented under National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG).
  • NMCG is the implementation wing of National Ganga Council set in 2016.

The main pillars of the programme are:

  • Sewage Treatment Infrastructure
  • River-Front Development
  • River-Surface Cleaning
  • Biodiversity
  • Afforestation
  • Public Awareness
  • Industrial Effluent Monitoring

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