Daily Prelims Newsletter|10 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

10 July 2021-Saturday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology

  • African swine fever
  • Zika Virus

Polity and Governance

  • National Security Act, 1980 (NSA)

Governmental Initiatives

  • Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF)

International Relations

  • Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI)

Science and Technology

African swine fever

Why in News?

In India, cases ofAfrican Swine Feverhave exploded in the past few months. Many estimates suggest that ASF has resulted in a 50 per cent shortage in north-eastern states’ pork production.

About African Swine Fever (ASF):

  • It is a highly contagious and mostly fatal animal disease.
  • It infects domestic and wild pigs, resulting in an acute form of hemorrhagic fever.
    • Hemorrhagic fevers refers to illness caused by four families of viruses- Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses.
  • ASF’s first case was detected in Africa in the 1920s.
  • The mortality is almost 100 per cent.
  • Since there is no treatment known, the only way to stop it spreading is by culling the animals.
  • ASF is not a threat to human beings. It is known to spread only from animals to other animals.
  • According to the FAO, ASF has high potential for transboundary spread. It is a disease of growing strategic importance in context ofglobal food security and household income.

Zika Virus

Why in News?

Recently, Zika Virus Disease was reported for the first time from Kerala.

About Zika Virus:

  • It is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. Later, it was identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and Tanzania.


  • It is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, mostlyAedes aegypti.
    • It is the same mosquito which transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
  • Zika virus is also known to be transmitted from mother to foetus during pregnancy, through sexual contact, transfusion of blood and blood products, and organ transplantation, etc.


  • Symptoms are mostly mild,including fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain. Most people with Zika virus do not develop symptoms.
  • However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants to be born with microcephaly i.e., smaller than normal head sizeand other congenital malformations.

Treatment Available:

  • As of now, there is no vaccine or medicine for Zika.
  • Focus is on relieving symptoms.

    Polity and Governance

    National Security Act, 1980 (NSA)

    Why in News?

    Many former civil servants have demanded an end of misuse of the provisions of NSA terming it as a draconian preventive detention law.

    About the National Security Act, 1980

    • It is a preventive detention
    • Preventive Detention involves the detainment of a person to keep him/her from committing future crimes and escaping future prosecution.
    • Under Article 22 (3) of the Constitution,preventive detention and restriction on personal liberty is allowed for reasons of state security and public order.
    • However, Article 22 (4) states that no law providing preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a period longer than three months unless:
      • An Advisory Board reports sufficient cause for extended detention.
      • Such a person is detained in accordance with the provisions of any statute made by the Parliament.
    • Hence under this powers GoI has made NSA, 1980.
    • The NSA empowers both the Centre and State government to detain a person to prevent him from acting in any manner prejudicial to national security, public order, etc.
    • The maximum Period of Confinement is 12 months,but this term can be extended if the government finds fresh evidence.
    • Detention under NSA is an administrative order passed either by the Divisional Commissioner or the DM and is not detention ordered by police based on specific allegations of violation of the law.

    Issues In the NSA:

    • NSA can be invoked by DM-
      • Even if a person is in police custody.
      • Even if the person has been granted bail by a trial court, he can be immediately detained under the NSA.
    • The detained person does not have the right to move to a criminal court with a bail application.

    Immunity for Passing and Carrying Out Order: The DM is protected under the Act from any prosecution, or any legal proceeding against him in issuance of the orders.      

    Governmental Initiatives

    Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF)

    Why in News?

    The Union Cabinet has recently given its approval to the various modifications in financing facility under Agriculture Infrastructure Fund.

    About AIF:

    • It is a medium to long term debt financing facility available for investment in viable agricultural projects through interest subvention and credit guarantee.
    • It is a central sector scheme.
    • The scheme is available for 10 years ie, from FY2020 to FY2029.

    Eligible beneficiaries:

    • Farmers, FPOs, Joint Liability Groups (JLGs), Marketing Cooperative Societies, SHGs, , Multipurpose Cooperative Societies, Agri-entrepreneurs, Start-ups, etc.

    Interest subvention:

    • All loans under this AIF will have interest subvention of 3% per annum (up to a limit of Rs. 2 Crore).
    • The subvention will be available for a maximum period of seven years.

    Credit guarantee:

    • It will be available for eligible borrowers from AIF under Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE) for a loan up to ₹2 crore.
    • The fee for this coverage is to be paid by the GoI.

    International Relations

    Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI)

    Why in News?

    India’s External Affairs minister stated that SCRI would promote trade facilitation.

    About SCRI:

    • It aims to create supply chain resilience aiming to eventually attain strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth in the region.
    • Initially, it will focus on
      • sharing best practices on supply chain resilience,
      • holding investment promotion events,
      • providing opportunities for stakeholders to explore the possibility of diversification of their supply chains.

    Objectiveof SCRI:

    • Attract FDI to turn the Indo-Pacific into an economic powerhouse.
    • Build mutually complementary relationship among partner countries.
    • The SCRI also aims to reduce dependence on Chinafor supply chains in the Indo-Pacific region amid the Covid-19 pandemic.

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