Daily Prelims Newsletter|12 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

12 July 2021-Monday

Table Of Contents


  • High-Altitude Yak

Science and Technology

  • Lymphatic Filariasis
  • NSIL (New Space India Limited)

Polity and Governance

  • Delimitation Commission


High-Altitude Yak

Why in News?

Recently, the National Research Centre on Yak at Dirang in Arunachal Pradesh has tied up with the National Insurance Company Ltd. (NICL) for insuring the high-altitude yaks.

About High Altitude Yaks:

  • Yaks belong to the Bovini tribe, which also includes bison, buffaloes, and cattle.
  • It can tolerate temperatures as low as-40 degree Celsius.
  • It is adapted for living at high altitudes, hence have long hair hanging off their sides like a curtain, sometimes even touching the ground.
  • They are extremely valued by Himalayan people. According to a Tibetan legend, first yaks were domesticated by Tibetan Buddhism founder Guru Rinpoche.
  • Yaks are also the lifeline of pastoral nomads in high altitude regions of the Indian Himalayan region.


  • Endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent highaltitude regions.
  • Yaks are most comfortable above 14,000 feet. They climb up to an elevation of 20,000 and usually don’t descend lower than 12,000 feet.
  • Yak-rearing states of India:
    • Arunachal Pradesh,
    • Sikkim,
    • Uttarakhand,
    • Himachal Pradesh and
    • Jammu & Kashmir.
  • The countrywide population trend of Yaks show that their population has been decreasing at an alarming rate.


  • Climate Change:The increasing temperature at high altitudes is causing heat stress in yak during warmer months of the year.
  • Inbreeding:Since wars and conflicts have caused closing of the borders, yaks are thought to be suffering from inbreeding due to the lack of availability of new yak germplasm.

Protection Status of Wild Yak:

  • IUCN Red list: Vulnerable
  • CITES: Appendix I
  • WPA, 1972: Schedule I

Science and Technology

Lymphatic Filariasis

Why in News?

Recently, the Maharashtra government has started a drug administration drive for the elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF).

AboutLymphatic Filariasis (LF):

  • It is commonly called as elephantiasis and is considered among theNeglected Tropical Disease (NTD). It is also the second most disabling disease after mental health.
  • It impairs the body’s lymphatic system leading to the abnormal enlargement of body parts, causing pain, severe disability and associated social stigma.
  • The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and specialized tissues essential as
    • Maintain the overall fluid balance in the body,
    • Health of organs and limbs
    • Is a major component of the body’s immune defence system.

  • LF is a vector-borne disease, caused by parasites classified as nematodes (roundworms).
  • There are commonly 3 types of thread-like filarial worms which causes LF:
    • WuchereriaBancrofti: responsible for 90% of the cases.
    • BrugiaMalayi: causes most of the remainder of the cases.
    • BrugiaTimori also causes the disease.


  • WHO recommends three drug treatment to accelerate global elimination of LF.
  • The treatment is known as IDA, which involves a combination of
    • ivermectin,
    • diethylcarbamazine citrate, and

NSIL (New Space India Limited)

Why in News?

ISRO Chairman, K Sivan has stated that NSIL can buy satellites from ISRO and can also lease it.

About NSIL:

  • NSIL is a Central Public Sector Enterprise and commercial arm of ISRO.
  • It was established in 2019 under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS).
    • The Department of Space (DoS) is a department under GoI responsible for administration of the Indian space program. It is directly under PMO.
  • Key Functions:
    • Mass-produce the SSLV and the PSLV in partnership with the private sector in India through technology transfers.
    • Use R&D carried out by ISRO for commercial purposes through Indian industry partners.
    • Marketing of technologies,products and services, both in India and abroad

Polity and Governance

Delimitation Commission

Why in News?

Recently, J&K Delimitation Commission has stated that it will base its final report on the 2011 Census taking into account the topography, difficult terrain, means of communication etc for the ongoing delimitation exercise.

About Delimitation Process:

  • Delimitation means the process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies to represent changes in population.
  • The body that does this delimitation exercise is called the Delimitation Commission.
  • As per Article 72 and 170, theParliament will enact Delimitation Act after every census to delimit territorial constituencies for Parliament and state legislature respectively.
  • The first delimitation exercise in post-independence India was carried out by the President (with the help of the Election Commission) in 1950-51.
  • Further, the Delimitation Commission Act was enacted in 1952.
  • Till now, Delimitation Commissions have been set up four times —
    • 1952,
    • 1963,
    • 1973

About Delimitation Commission:

  • The Delimitation Commission is appointed by the President of India.
  • It works in collaboration with the Election Commission of India or ECI.
  • Composition of the Commission:
    • Retired Supreme Court judge
    • Chief Election Commissioner
    • Respective State Election Commissioners
  • Functions of Delimitation Commission:
    • Determine the number and boundaries of constituencies to make population of all constituencies nearly equal.
    • To identify seats reserved for SCs and STs wherever their population is relatively large.
  • The orders of Delimitation Commission have the force of law and cannot be called in question before any court.

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