Daily Prelims Newsletter|13 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

13 July 2021-Tuesday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology

  • Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES)

Polity and Governance

  • Public Accounts Committee (PAC)

Art and Culture

  • Jagannath Temple
  • Odissi Dance Form

Governmental Initiatives.

  • Jal Jeevan Mission

Science and Technology

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES)

Why in News?

The Jal Jeevan Mission has already provided tap water supply to more than 97 lakh households in five AES (Japanese Encephalitis-Acute Encephalitis Syndrome) affected states- Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

About AES:

  • AES is a severe case of encephalitis mostly transmitted by mosquitoes in India.
  • Vulnerable Population:
    • children and
    • young adults
  • Causative Agents: Viruses are the main causative agents in AES cases, although other sources such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, spirochetes, chemicals, toxins, and non-infectious agents have also been reported.
  • There is no vaccine present of this disease.
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of AES in India.

Polity and Governance

Public Accounts Committee (PAC):

Why in News?

Mukul Roy was made the chief of Public Accounts Committee of West Bengal Legislative Assembly.

About PAC:

  • The PAC is formed every year. It has a strength of not more than 22 members of which 15 are from Lok Sabha and 7 from Rajya Sabha.
  • The term of office of the members of PAC is oneyear.
  • The Chairman is appointed by the Speaker (Lok Sabha). Since 1967, as a convention, the chairman of the PAC is selected from the opposition party.
  • Its chief function is to examine the auditreport of CAG after it is laid in the Parliament.

Historical Background:

  • PAC is the oldest of all House panels. It was first set up in 1921 in the after the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.

Limitations of the Public Accounts Committee:

  • It cannot intervene or deliberate on the questions of policy.
  • It can keep deliberate on the expenses only after they are incurred. It is vested with no power to limit expenses.
  • It also cannot intervene in matters of day-to-day administration.
  • Any recommendation which the PAC makes is onlyadvisory, not binding on the the executive.
  • It is only an executive body and thus cannot issue an order. Only the Parliament can take a final decision on its findings.

Art and Culture

Jagannath Temple

Why in News?

Recently, the Vice President of India greeted the people on the eve of Rath Yatra of Jagannath Puri in Odisha.

About Jagannath Temple, Puri:

  • Constructed by King AnatavarmanChodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty in 12th Century AD.
  • Mythology:The temple is called ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ where, it is said, the power of ‘Yama’, the god of death, has been nullified due to the presence of Lord Jagannath.
  • It is made in Kalinga style of architecture.
  • The temple was called the “White Pagoda” and is also a part of Char Dham pilgrimages (others are: Badrinath, Dwaraka, Rameswaram).
  • The chief idol of Jagannatha made of wood is ceremoniously replaced every twelve or nineteen years using sacred trees.
  • Three principal deities in the temple are Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra

Odisha/ Kalinga Architecture:

  • This style is broadly under the Nagara style.
  • In Kalinga Architecture, a temple is made in two parts, a tower, and a hall.
  • The tower is called deul and the hall is called jagmohan.
  • The walls of both the deul and the jagmohan are sculpted with architectural motifs.
  • Kalinga Style also called asUtkal Style of Architecture.

    Odissi Dance Form

    Why in News?

    Odissi dance form was in news recently.

    About Odissi:

    • Odissi dance is one among the eight classical dances of India.
    • It is associated with Odisha and some other parts of eastern India.
    • The dance form has its origin in the temples.
    • The carvings found at the Udayagiri and Khandgiri Monasteries denote that Odissi was patronised as early as the 2nd Century BCE.
    • The steps appear like the waves of ocean, hence symbolises the aspect of water.
    • The classical music and dance form of Odisha was named Odissi by Odia poet Kabichandra Kalicharan Pattanayak,
      • He was the centre of the cultural revival of Odisha in post-independence India.

    Dance Techniques

    • Odissi dance form comprises of:
      • The movement of the head, bust and torso.
      • The accompanying gestures and expressions.
    • The two basic postures of Odissi are:
      • Chowk: a position imitating a square – a very masculine stance with the weight of the body equally balanced.
      • Tribhanga: The tribhanga is a very feminine stance where the body is deflected at the neck, torso and the knees.
    • Odissi dance theme generally deals with love of Radha and Krishna.

    Odissi dance form also finds mention in the Sanskrit Text – Natya Shastra as Audramagdhi.

    Governmental Initiatives

    Jal Jeevan Mission

    • It aims to supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.
    • Under Ministry of Jal Shakti.
    • It is centrally sponsored scheme.
    • It looks to create a janandolan for water, to make it everyone’s priority.

    Key Programmes to be undertaken:

    • Creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability measures like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge, etc to be undertaken in convergence with other government programmes.
    • Prioritizing FHTCs in affected areas, like villages in drought prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
    • Providing FHTCs to Schools, Anganwadi centres,Health centres, Gram Panchayat buildings, wellness centres and community buildings.
    • Use of technological interventions to remove contaminants where water quality is an issue.

    About Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban):

    • It was launched by the Budget 2021-22.
    • JJM (Urban) is under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
    • It aims to provide universal coverage of water supply to all households through functional taps in all statutory towns.
    • It will be a step towards Sustainable Development Goal- 6 i.e., clean water and sanitation.

    Key Objectives of JJM(Urban):

    • Securing tap and sewer connections.
    • Rejuvenation of existing water bodies.
    • Creating a circular water economy.

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