DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC|16 JULY 2021|RaghukulCS

Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

16 July 2021 - Friday

Index

Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name

Source

1

Interference an investigating officer can do without

The Hindu

2

The post-pandemic doctor

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

Civil Aviation ministry releases draft of Drone Rules 2021 for public consultation

Syllabus–GS 2: Government policy

Analysis: –

  • Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) on Thursday released the updated ‘The Drone Rules, 2021’ for public consultation.
  • An official statement from MoCA said, “Built on a premise of trust, self-certification, and non-intrusive monitoring, The Drone Rules, 2021 will replace the UAS Rules 2021 (released on 12 March 2021).”
  • The last date for receipt of public comments is August 5, 2021.
  • As per the draft of the Drone Rules, 2021, approvals for drones has been proposed to be abolished which includes unique authorisation number, unique prototype identification number, certificate of conformance, certificate of maintenance, import clearance, acceptance of existing drones, operator permit, authorisation of R&D organisation, student remote pilot licence, remote pilot instructor authorisation, drone port authorisation etc.

Book review: ‘The Drone Age: How Drone Technology Will Change War and Peace by Michael J Boyle

Analysis: –

  • Michael J Boyle explores six ways in which drones affect decision-making and risk calculations of its users both on and off the battlefield.
  • It also seeks to show that the introduction of drones has changed how we understand the strategic choices that we face in war and peace, and the consequences these decisions may have in the future.
  • Boyle begins with the early history of the technology, which he declares is not a linear nor clear one.
  • “It is a story of mistakes, false starts, disasters, and failed prototypes,” he writes. Here, he also delves into how its history wouldn’t have been a story to be told, nor would be an integral application in our society today if it weren’t for the financial backing of the military at the time it emerged.
  • “Drone technology was incubated over decades by the military-industrial establishment,” he adds, “and was used for secret military operations for years before appearing in the public domain and broadened their capabilities.”

Mains Analysis

Interference an investigating officer can do without

Why in News?

Growing instances of judicial interference in an investigation are not only undesirable but also not sanctioned by law

Syllabus— GS 2 Role of Judiciary

  • In a democracy like India, the Executive must follow the Constitution.
  • The bureaucracy, by the same logic, is answerable to the duly elected government. In a democratic country, it is this impregnable legal stance that keeps a check on police behaviour.
  • We have witnessed how USA dealt with George Floyd case and trialled guilty police officer. The deaths of a 58-year-old father and his 31-year-old son in Sattankulam, Tamil Nadu, in June 2020, warrant further restrictions on police authority to pursue an established crime.

Supreme Courts’ Stance –

  • The Supreme Court of India stated that courts do not have the ability to order an investigating officer to arrest any specific person linked to a crime.
  • This viewpoint should be considered in light of a growing number of cases of subordinate judicial officers, and even High Courts, ordering the investigating officer to make an arrest of a person who has been identified as a suspect in the commission of a crime.
  • The directive to police officers on arrests made during a criminal investigation is detrimental to officer morale and cuts to the heart of field policing.
  • Court rulings that imply a lack of faith in police competence and honesty will make local cops even more arbitrary than they are today, forcing them to engage in questionable behaviour that will put doubt on an officer’s ability to think for himself.
  • Interference — not intervention — by the court in the day-to-day investigation is not only unwelcome, but it is also illegal.
  • With the exception of the Supreme Court, which the Constitution empowers with unquestionable authority and discretion, the lower courts should not issue orders regarding arrests and searches.

Role of FIR

  • We need to teach the Executive and the general public that a first information report is no longer considered a charitable deed to the injured complainant.
  • Every police station in the country is required to file a complaint under the relevant provisions of a statute as soon as a cognisable offence is established in the complaint.
  • To settle personal scores, the complaint could be false or frivolous. The most basic prerequisite, though, is registration.
  • Another barrier against police wrongdoing exists. The CrPC requires the investigating officer to keep a daily journal detailing the actions taken following registration.
  • If the content of such a diary demonstrates an individual’s complicity, the court can interrogate an investigating officer about his plans based on the evidence.
  • In the eyes of the law, ordering an investigating officer to make an arrest before he has thoroughly examined the evidence is unsustainable.

Way Forward: –

  • To summarise, the blame for the police’s faults, particularly in the area of criminal investigation, completely on the shoulders of many senior officers who are waiting to be browbeaten by outsiders or seeking unethical ways to advance their careers.

Question: –

Growing instances of judicial interference in an investigation are not only undesirable but also not sanctioned by law. Discuss the statement in the context of the Interference by the court in the day-to-day investigation.

The post-pandemic Doctor

Why in News?

K Srinath Reddy writes: Covid should catalyse changes in medical education, enhance the profession’s orientation towards scientific sensibility and compassion.

Syllabus—GS2: Issues related to Health Sector

  • The COVID pandemic provided the catalytic spark for reforms by throwing light on many areas that medical education must address.
  • It also reemphasized time-honored scientific precepts & moral values of the medical profession.
  • The changing channels of demands & delivery of health services emphasis the young doctors on the development & display of new competencies.

The history of reforms in Western Medical Education:

  • In 1910, major reforms in Western Medical education begun after the Flexner report advocated structured, science-based & laboratory-supported learning, replacing the apprenticeship model inherited from apothecaries.
  • While Western models infusing rigorous scientific research into medical percept & practice, it imposed a rigid reductionist approach that focused on partitioning the human body into sub-cellular & organs structures.
  • Though these models ushered remarkable scientific innovations, the integrated functioning & interconnectivity of the human body obscured from medical education.

The need for reforms in Indian Medical Education:

  • The urban biased & tertiary care-focused Indian medical colleges were disconnected from the real-world functioning of a multi-layered health system.
  • On this backdrop, in 2010 The Commission on Health Professional Education in the 21st Century advocated a multi-disciplinary & socially responsive education model.
  • However, the commission’s call to make medical education in its scientific approach & health system has not yet imparted the required momentum.
  • The ability to judge the quality of new scientific evidence for correctly guiding clinical practice & future research is essential for a training doctor.
  • This is much needed when new claims inundate medical journals & social media.
  • For instance, during the pandemic, the rush for information has removed the inadequate protective filters with unreviewed publications getting circulated.
  • Medical education must teach the essential principles of epidemiology & statistics that underlie good research design & interpretation.
  • Because without such insights, many inappropriate tests & ineffective medicines are prescribed by doctors in their misguided belief of doing good.
  • For instance, during COVID 1st wave, drugs like hydroxychloroquine failed when put to the critical test of a clinical trial yet those untested drugs for COVID abound in clinical practice.
  • Also due to lack of insights, unnecessary pilings of wasteful tests are witnessed during COVID like CT scans, etc.
  • The emergence of Telemedicine as an important bridge to clinical care during the pandemic period showcased the convenience & cost-effectiveness of such consultations make telemedicine an established health system component.
  • Medical education must impart the needed technical & social skills to make tele-consultations effective & safe.
  • For a country like India with vast patient numbers, the growth of telemedicine requires that medical students be trained to efficiently evaluate patient data & make competent management decisions.

Way Forward: –

  • The pandemic highlighted the need for imparting skills of effective public communication & empathetic conversations with patients.
  • Precise, accurate, jargon-free, confident & clear communication is needed in such interactions.
  • The public health pioneer Livingston Trudeau once said that a physician has to cure sometimes, to relieve often, more importantly, to comfort always.

Question: –

Explain how the pandemic has highlighted the need for imparting skills of effective public communication & empathetic conversations with patients. Do you feel that the time has come for Medical education to enhance scientific sensibility & compassion amongst physicians?

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