Daily Prelims Newsletter|09 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

09 July 2021-Friday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology

  • Black fungus Disease


  • Minimum Support Price

Polity and Governance

  • Right to Information Act

International Relations

  • World Health Organisation
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Science and Technology

Black fungus Disease

Why in News?

Recent studies have concluded that 86% of Black Fungus patients were unvaccinated.

About the Disease:

  • It is also called as Mucormycosis or Zygomycosis.
  • It is a serious but rare fungal infection.
  • It is caused by a group of molds called mucormycetesnaturally present in the environment.
  • The disease mostly manifests in the skin but can also affect the lungs and the brain.

Vulnerable Section:

  • It mainly affects people on medication for some health problems which reduces their ability to fight such environmental pathogens.


  • Sinuses or lungs of affected individuals get affected when they inhale fungal spores present in the air.
  • Initial signs include pain and redness around the eyes or nose, fever, coughing,  headache, shortness of breath, and even altered mental status in some cases.


  • Treat with Antifungals.
  • It may later require surgery.


Minimum Support Price

Why in News?

The has been record purchase by the govt. at MSP but protestors are still demanding scrapping of new farm laws.

About MSP:

  • It is the minimum price for any crop which the government considers as remunerative enough for farmers and hence deserve of support.
  • It is the price government agencies pay when they procure the particular crop.
  • The Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP) recommends MSPs for 22 crops and fair and remunerative price (FRP) for sugarcane.
  • CACP is an attached office under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, GoI.
  • It was formed in1965.
  • It is an advisory body whose recommendations are not binding on the Government.
  • CACP consider following factors to determine MSP:
    • cost of cultivation.
    • Supply and demand situation for the commodity,
    • Market price trends both in domestic and global market
    • Parity vis-à-vis other crops,
    • Implications for consumers-inflation,
    • Environment soil and water use
    • Terms of trade between agriculture and non-agriculture sectors, etc.

Production Costs taken in fixing the MSPs:

  • The CACP considers both A2+FL and C2 costs incurredbefore recommending MSP.
  • A2 costs: cover all paid-out expenses, both in cash and kind, which is incurred by farmers on seeds, fertilisers, chemicals, hired labour, fuel, irrigation, etc.
  • A2+FL Costs: cover actual paid-out costs plus an imputed value of unpaid family labour.
  • C2 costs: account for the rentals and interest forgone on owned land and fixed capital assets, on top of A2+FL.

Polity and Governance

Right to Information Act

Why in News?

The Supreme Court has asked all the states to file status report of all vacancies in offices under RTI act.

About RTI Act, 2005

  • The act sets out the rules and procedures regarding citizens’ right to information.
  • This act was enacted to consolidate the fundamental right in the Indian constitution guaranteed under‘freedom of speech and expression’.
  • RTI is implicit FR in the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution.

Key Provisions:

  • Suo motu disclosure of information by each public authority.
  • Some exemptions against furnishing information are also mentioned.
  • The act also provides for disclosure of information exempted under Official Secrets Act, 1923 if larger public interest is served.
  • The Act provides for appointment of Information Commissioners at Central and State level.
  • Public authorities must designate some of its officers as Public Information Officer (PIO). They are responsible to give information to the person seeking information under the RTI Act.
  • Time period of furnishing information:
    • Normally, within 30 daysfrom the receipt of application by the public authority.
    • If information sought concerns the life or liberty of a person, it shall be furnished within 48 hours.

Applicabilty of RTI Act:

  • Private bodies: not within the Act’s ambit directly. However, CIC has held that privatised public utility companies fall within the purview of RTIe.g. Electricity DISCOMS.
  • Political parties:
    • CIC had held that the political parties are public authorities and are answerable to citizens under the RTI Act.
    • However in 2013 the government by an Amendment removed political parties from the scope of the law.
  • Chief Justice of India:
    • Supreme Court upheld that the office of Chief Justice of India is under the purview of Right to Information (RTI) Act.

Key Provisions of RTI (Amendment) Act, 2019:

  • The GoIis given the power to set the salaries and service conditions of Information Commissioners at central as well as state levels.
  • Term of the central CIC and ICs: Appointment will be “for such term as may be prescribed by the Central Government”.

International Relations

World Health Organisation

Why in News?

Bharat Biotech’s COVAXIN may soon get WHO nod as the chief scientist indicates that trial data meets benchmark requirements.

About WHO:

  • World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations specialized agencythat looks into matters of public Health.
  • During it’s establishment in 1948, it became the first specialized agency of the UN to which every member subscribed.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It is an inter-governmental organization, presentlyhaving 194 member states.
  • India became a memberof the WHO in 1948.
  • Funding of WHO:
    • WHO depends on donor funds – mainly from rich countries and foundations like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
    • It does not have secured funding from its member countries.
    • Hence, currently most of WHO’s funding is tied to programs that donors choose, debilitating its ability to take independent actions. This is one of the criticism of WHO.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Why in News?

FAO’s food price index revealed that for the first timeglobal food prices fell in last 12 months.

About FAO:

  • It is one of thespecialized agencies of the United Nations which leads international efforts to defeat worldwide hunger.
  • World Food Day is celebrated every year across the world on 16thOctoberto mark the anniversary of the founding of the FAO in 1945.
  • India also released a commemorative coin of ₹ 75 denomination to mark the 75th Anniversary of the FAO.
  • It is headquartered in Rome.
  • Its sister bodies are the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

Key Initiatives of FAO:

  • Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS).
  • It monitors the Desert Locust situation throughout the world.

Flagship Publications:

  • The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture.
  • The State of the World’s Forests.
  • The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World.
  • The State of Food and Agriculture.
  • The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets.

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