Daily Prelims Newsletter|21 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

21 July 2021-Wednesday

Table Of Contents

1. Science and Technology

  • Monkey B Virus

2.Economy

  • National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)

3.Polity and Governance

  • Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)

4.Security

  • Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

5.International Relations

  • Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

Science and Technology

Monkey B Virus

Why in News?

Recently, China reported the first death of a human due Monkey B virus.

About Monkey B Virus:

  • Monkey B virus is an alpha herpes virus endemic in macaques and was initially isolated in 1932.
  • Alpha herpes viruses are pathogens which establish lifelong infections in the peripheral nervous system of humans and many other vertebrates.
  • B virus can survive for hours on surfaces, particularly when it is moist.

Transmission:

  • It can be transmitted via direct contact and exchange of bodily secretions of monkeys and has a fatality rate of upto 80%.
  • Human-to-human Transmission: Till date, only one case has been documented of an infected person spreading it to another person.

Symptoms:

  • Starts with mostly flu-like symptoms like fever and chills, muscle ache, fatigue and headache,
  • Later, an infected person may develop small blisters in the wound or area on the body which came in contact with the monkey.
  • In the advanced stage, the virus can even lead to the loss of muscle coordination and neurological damage.

Treatment:

  • Presently, there are no vaccines which can protect against this virus.
  • Timely antiviral medications may help in reducing the risk to life.

Economy

National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)

Why in News?

The NCLAT recently stayed the Videocon’s takeover by Vedanta.

About NCLAT:

  • The NCLAT was constituted under Companies Act, 2013.
  • It acts as appellate tribunal:
    • against the orders of the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT).
    • against the orders passed by NCLT(s) under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
    • against the orders passed by Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India under IBC.
    • against any direction or decision made by Competition Commission of India (CCI).
  • The chairperson and members of the NCLAT is appointed in consultation with the Chief Justice of India (CJI).
  • Appeals against decisions of NCLAT lies with Supreme Court of India.

Related information:

  • NCLT or National Company Law Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body which adjudicates issues pertaining to the companies in the country.
  • It is formed under Companies Act, 2013.

Polity and Governance

Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)

Why in News?

Delhi High court has seeked response from centre on the issue of time taken to decide on FCRA certificate suspension.

About FCRA, 2010

  • Foreign funding of persons and organisations in India is regulated under the FCRA Act.
  • It is implemented by Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • As per the act, individuals can accept foreign contributions without permission from MHA, subject to maximum limit of ₹ 25,000.
  • The Act also seek to ensure that the recipients of such foreign contributions adhere to the stated purpose for which the said contribution was obtained.
  • Organisations are required to (re)register themselves every five years.

Key Provisions of Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2020

  • Prohibition to accept foreign contribution: It bars public servants from receiving foreign contributions.
    • Public servant includes a person in service or pay of the government or remunerated by the government for the performance of any public duty.
  • Transfer of foreign contributions: It prohibits the transfer of foreign contribution to any other person who is not registered to accept foreign contributions.
  • Aadhaar for registration: It makes Aadhaar mandatory for all key functionaries of organisation or individual receiving foreign contribution, as an identification document.
  • FCRA account: Foreign contribution must be received only in an account as designated by the bank as FCRA account in State Bank of India, New Delhi branch.
  • Reduction in use of foreign contribution for administrative purposes: It proposes that not more than 20% of the total foreign funds received could be used for administrative expenses.
  • Surrender of certificate: The Act allows the GoI to permit a person to surrender their registration certificate.

Security

Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

Why in News?

CDS was in news recently.

About CDS:

  • He will be the single-point military adviser to the GoI as suggested by the Kargil Review Committee in 1999.
  • He is to be a Four-star General.
  • He acts as the Permanent Chairman of Chiefs of Staff Committee which also has the three service chiefs as members.
  • His function is to foster greater operational synergy between the three service branches of the Indian military and keep inter-service frictions to a minimum.

Other Conditions of the office of CDS:

  • Not eligible to hold any Government office after demitting the office of CDS.
  • No private employment without prior approval of GoI for a period of five years after demitting the office of CDS.

Roles and functions:

  • He will provide single-point military advice to the GoI, inject synergy in planning, procurements and logistics in the armed forces.
  • The move will ensure integration of land, air and sea operations through the eventual setting up of theatre commands.
  • The CDS will also function as the military advisor to the PM-led Nuclear Command Authority.
  • He will also have the direct command of tri-Service organizations to handle the new warfare domains of space and cyberspace.
  • He will function as the Principal Military Adviser to the Defence Minister.
  • He will also function as the Permanent Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee.
  • He will also be the member of Defence Acquisition Council and Defence Planning Committee.

International Relations

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

Why in News?

An evaluation by the FATF to analyse the effectiveness of India’s anti-money laundering and countering terrorist financing regime has been postponed.

About FATF:

  • It is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7
  • Headquarter: Paris, France (in OECD Headquarter)
  • India became member of FATF in 2010.
  • Key functions:
    • Combat Money Laundering
    • Combat terrorist financing
    • Combat threats to the integrity of international financial system.
  • The FATF Plenary is the highest decision-making body of the FATF. It meets three times per year.

Blacklist and Grey list:

  • Blacklist: Also knowns as Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories (NCCTs).
    • These countries were found to support terror funding and money laundering activities.
    • Blacklist is revised regularly, adding, or deleting entries.
  • Grey List: These countries were found to be safe haven for supporting terror funding and money laundering activities.
    • The inclusion here serves as a warning to the country that it may enter the blacklist.
  • Countries in the grey list may face:
    • Economic sanctions from IMF, World Bank, etc.
    • Problem in getting loans from IMF, World Bank, and other countries.
    • Reduction in international trade, etc.

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