Daily Prelims Newsletter|23 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

23 July 2021-Friday

Table Of Contents

1.Science and Technology

  • Tuberculosis (TB)


  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016

3.Polity and Governance

  • Election Petition
  • Civil Services Board

4.International Relations

  • G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ 

Science and Technology

Tuberculosis (TB)

Why in News?

There has been a decline in notified Tuberculosis numbers in Karnataka mostly attributed to the human resource being redirected for COVID care and identification.

Global Tuberculosis Programme.

About TB:

  • TB is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs.
  • TB is spread from person to person through the air via cough, sneeze, or spit, as these propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to first-line TB drugs soniazid and rifampicin. It is treatable and curable by using second-line
  • Drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not even respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs. This is often untreatable.

Initiatives by India on this front

  • The Nikshay Portal: It is a national TB information system to manage information of patients, and treatment.
  • Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY): Aims to provide financial support to TB patients for their nutrition.
  • TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign: Launched in 2019 it showcases the highest level of commitment to eliminate TB.
  • The Saksham Project by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)- provides psycho-social counselling to DR-TB patients.


    Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016

    Why in News?

    Recently, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) has amended the IBC Regulations, 2016 to enhance the discipline, transparency, and accountability in corporate insolvency proceedings.

    About IBC:

    • The IBC,2016 aims to streamline and speed up the resolution process of failed businesses.
    • The code forms a common forum for debtors and creditors of all classes to resolve the insolvency.
    • The code mandates that the resolution process of a stressed company will have to be completed in a maximum of 270 days (180+90).

    Various institutions created by IBC:

    • Insolvency Professionals: A specialised cadre of licensed professionals to administer the resolution process, manage assets of the debtor, and provide information to creditors assisting them in decision making.
    • Insolvency Professional Agencies: The insolvency professionals are registered with insolvency professional agencies.
    • Information Utilities: Creditors will report financial information of all the debt owed to them by the specified debtor.
    • Adjudicating authorities: The proceedings of the resolution process is adjudicated by
      • National Companies Law Tribunal (NCLT), for companies; and the
      • Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT), for individuals.
    • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board: It will regulate insolvency professionals, insolvency professional agencies and information utilities set up under the Code.
      • The Board consists of representatives of RBI, and the Ministries of Finance, Corporate Affairs and Law.

    Polity and Governance

    Election Petition

    Why in News?

    Election Petition was in news recently since it High Court of Kolkata reallocated Mamata Banerjee’s election petition to a different bench.

    About Election Petition:

    • The ECI’s role ends with the declaration of results. Post that, an election petition is the only legal remedy available to a voter or a candidate who thinks that there has been malpractice in an election.
    • Such person can challenge the result through an election petition submitted to the High Court of the state in which the constituency is situated in.
    • Such petition must be filed within 45 days from the date of the poll results.
    • The Representative of the People Act (RPA), 1951 suggests that the High Court should try to conclude the said trial within six months. However, it usually drags on for much longer, even years.

    Grounds for filing Election Petition:

    • The winning candidate was not qualified to contest on the day of the election.
    • The winning candidate, his poll agent, or any other person with consent of the winning candidate has indulged in a corrupt practice.
    • Malpractices in the counting process
    • Non-compliance with any provision of the Constitution or the RPA or any rules or orders passed under the RPA.

    If Verdict is in favour of the Petitioner:

    • The petitioner may seek that the results of all or the winning candidates may be declared void.
    • Also, the petitioner may ask the court to declare the petitioner or any other candidate as the winner or duly elected.
    • So, under the verdict on an election petition, if declared in favour of the petitioner, may result in a fresh election or the court announcing a new winner.

    Civil Services Board

    Why in News?

    Karnataka High Court has directed the state government to take immediate steps to constitute the Civil Services board. 

    About Civil Services Board:

    • Supreme Court in 2013 directed centre and states to set up Civil Services Board to-
      • Insulate bureaucracy from excessive political interference,
      • Put an end to frequent transfers of bureaucrats by their political bosses.
    • As per subsequent rules, all states were mandated to have a civil services board to decide on transfers and postings of the bureaucrats.


    • Decide on the transfer of a civil servant before completion of his or her fixed tenure.
    • The Board is mandated to submit an annual report to the GoI about the date of the meetings held by them.


    • The board is headed by chief secretary of the state.
    • Other members:
      • Senior most additional chief secretary or chairman, Board of Revenue, Financial Commissioner or an officer of equivalent rank and status as member.
      • Principal Secretary or Secretary, Department of Personnel in the state government as member secretary.

    International Relations

    G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’

    Why in News?

    G7 countries are being urged to tackle climate emergency with same urgency as shown in pandemic looking at grim flood situation in Europe.

    About G7:

    • It is an intergovernmental organisation formed in 1975.
    • It meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy.
    • The group doesn’t have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters.
    • The decisions taken by the leaders during annual summits are non-binding on the member countries.
    • Members: G7 is a bloc of industrialized democracies i.e. France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and Canada.
    • In 1997, G7 was joined by Russia and it was renamed as G8.
    • However, the group came to be recalled G7, since Russia was expelled as a member in 2014 following Russia’s annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine.
    • Apart from leaders of member countries, important international organizations like European Union, IMF, World Bank and the United Nations are also invited to its summits.

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